Open Questions Chronicle

[OQC Home] [Open Questions] [Site Map] [Previous] [Next]

Volume 10, Number 28
July 11, 2011


Physical sciences
Technology
Life sciences
Neuroscience, psychology, behavior
Health and medicine
Physical sciences

Dark energy
Global warming
Paleoclimatology
Gravitational lensing, the cosmic microwave background, and dark energy
Muon antineutrino disappearance
Plate tectonics and mantle plumes
Astrochemistry
Gaia probe
Star dust
Quantum criticality
Quark-gluon plasma
CP symmetry breaking
Supernovae
Star-forming regions
Radio astronomy
Quantum superposition of nanometer-scale objects
Superfluidity
Galaxy chirality
Topological insulators

Technology

Spintronics
Graphene
Lab-on-a-chip
Light dragging
Superconductivity
Nanotechnology
Quantum circuits
Quantum memory
Supercomputer cloud
Biomolecular computer
Photovoltaics
Quantum computing
Controlled fusion
Hydrogen storage
Photonic chips

Life sciences

1000 Genomes Project
Eye development
MicroRNA and muscle development
Small nucleolar RNA and lipotoxicity
Cell movement in response to chemoattractants
Chaperones and membrane proteins
Centromeres
Post-translational remodeling of mRNA and aging in C. elegans
Ancient photosynthesis
Synthetic biology
Archaea
Pin1 and mitosis
Chromosome size across species
Jaw designs
Cell reprogramming
Swi2/Snf2 remodelers and gene transcription
Endocytosis
Sexual reproduction
Cyanobacteria

Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior

Dietary fats, endocannabinoids, and appetite
Autism
Brain-imaging studies
Intentional forgetting
Self-awareness in monkeys
Biological motion perception
Information flow in the embryonic visual cortex
FOXP2 and neural development
Brain simulation
Memory inhibition by ethanol
Memory
Neural signal processing
Schizophrenia

Health and medicine

Malaria
Multiple sclerosis
Drug delivery
Autoimmune disease
Obesity and inflammation
Cardiovascular disease
Cancer
Cancer biology
Antioxidants
Nanobiotechnology
Thiazolidinedione drungs and adipose stem cells
Conversion of white fat to brown fat, obesity, and diabetes
Tissue engineering
Reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis
Gene therapy
Sunburn and inflammation
Tuberculosis
Synthetic organs
Antibiotics
Stem cells
Stem cells and cancer
Universal influenza vaccine
AIDS
Sleep deprivation and weight gain
Alzheimer's disease



Physical sciences


Dark energy

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Big rips and little rips
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - More rain, less snow leads to faster Arctic ice melt
  2. July 4, 2011 - Researchers push the boundary with high carbon emission scenarios
  3. July 4, 2011 - Global warming pause linked to sulfur in China - also here
  4. July 4, 2011 - Why global temperatures held steady for 10 years
  5. July 5, 2011 - Sulfur stalls surface temperature rise
  6. July 5, 2011 - How hot will Earth be by 2100? The answer's in the clouds
  7. July 5, 2011 - Are climate change models too conservative?
  8. July 5, 2011 - Asian pollution slowed global warming: study
  9. July 6, 2011 - Greenland's ice sheets face new threat
  10. July 8, 2011 - Warmer Weather Is Officially the New Normal
  11. July 10, 2011 - Ocean's carbon dioxide uptake reduced by climate change - also here, here
Background


Paleoclimatology

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - How hot did Earth get in the past? Scientists uncover new information - also here
Background


Gravitational lensing, the cosmic microwave background, and dark energy

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Viewpoint: A distorted view of the early universe
Background, Background


Muon antineutrino disappearance

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - The antineutrino vanishes differently
Background


Plate tectonics and mantle plumes

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Mantle plume propelled India towards Asia
  2. July 6, 2011 - New force driving Earth's tectonic plates discovered - also here
  3. July 10, 2011 - Plate tectonics affected by mantle hot spots
Background, Background


Astrochemistry

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Hydrogen peroxide found in space - also here
  2. July 6, 2011 - Bleach in space!
Background


Gaia probe

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Eye of Gaia: Billion-pixel camera to map Milky Way - also here
  2. July 7, 2011 - Billion-Pixel Array Will Map the Milky Way
Background, Background


Star dust

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - The making of dust
  2. July 7, 2011 - Exploding stars can make good dust factories
  3. July 7, 2011 - Missing Supernova Dust Mystery Solved
  4. July 7, 2011 - Cosmic Dust, Detected in Colossal Quantities
  5. July 8, 2011 - Herschel dusts off hidden cosmic origin
  6. July 8, 2011 - Dying stars create dusty galaxies
Background


Quantum criticality

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - A chemical detour to quantum criticality
Background


Quark-gluon plasma

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - When matter melts
Background


CP symmetry breaking

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Tevatron particles shed light on antimatter mystery
Background, Background


Supernovae

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Exploding stars can make good dust factories
  2. July 7, 2011 - Herschel Helps Solve Mystery of Cosmic Dust Origins
  3. July 7, 2011 - Herschel Space Observatory discovers source of cosmic dust in a stellar explosion
  4. July 8, 2011 - Herschel Detects a Massive Dust Reservoir in Supernova 1987A
  5. July 8, 2011 - Supernovae seed galaxies with massive amounts of dust - also here
  6. July 25, 2011 - From Stars to Stardust
Background


Star-forming regions

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Once More Into the Bleach
Background


Radio astronomy

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Linked radio telescopes provide SKA teaser
  2. July 7, 2011 - Big step forward for SKA radio telescope
Background


Quantum superposition of nanometer-scale objects

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - In two places at once
Background


Superfluidity

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - A new phase for molecular superfluidity
Background


Galaxy chirality

References:
  1. July 8, 2011 - The universe may have been born spinning, according to new findings on the symmetry of the cosmos
  2. July 8, 2011 - Was the big bang born rotating?
  3. July 25, 2011 - Was the universe born spinning?
Background


Topological insulators

References:
  1. July 8, 2011 - Unfazed by imperfections
Background



Technology


Spintronics

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - The next generation of computing
Background


Graphene

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - The wonders of graphene on display
  2. July 5, 2011 - Graphene quantum dots could lead to low-cost solar cells and OLEDs
Background


Lab-on-a-chip

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Laser, electric fields combined for new 'lab-on-chip' technologies
  2. July 6, 2011 - Researchers apply NMR/MRI to microfluidic chromatography
Background


Light dragging

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Rotating cylinder puts a new spin on slow light
  2. July 6, 2011 - Scientists drag light by slowing it to speed of sound
  3. July 6, 2011 - Physicists demonstrate rotated light images
Background


Superconductivity

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Ultrafast switch for superconductors
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - With a simple coating, nanowires show a dramatic increase in efficiency and sensitivity - also here
  2. July 7, 2011 - A new way to build nanostructures
  3. July 10, 2011 - Nanoscientists build antenna for light - also here
Background


Quantum circuits

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Mechanical micro-drum cooled to quantum ground state
  2. July 6, 2011 - Drumming to a cooler quantum beat
Background


Quantum memory

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Quantum memory works at room temperature
Background


Supercomputer cloud

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Rutgers-led Experts Assemble Globe-Spanning Supercomputer Cloud
Background


Biomolecular computer

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Biomolecular computer can autonomously sense multiple signs of disease
Background


Photovoltaics

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Double solar world record
Background


Quantum computing

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Prototype 'optics table on a chip' places microwave photon in two colors at once
  2. July 8, 2011 - Building a better quantum computer with lasers and (impure) diamonds
Background


Controlled fusion

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - US joining the Wendelstein 7-X fusion project
Background


Hydrogen storage

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Rhodium-iron catalyst helps increase yield of hydrogen gas in steam reforming of ethanol
Background


Photonic chips

References:
  1. July 10, 2011 - In a major breakthrough, scientists control light propagation in photonic chips - also here
Background, Background



Life sciences


1000 Genomes Project

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Roots of Disease Found to Vary by Continent
Background


Eye development

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Insights into the story of the eye
Background


MicroRNA and muscle development

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Crucial role for molecule in muscle development
Background, Background


Small nucleolar RNA and lipotoxicity

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - (Cellular) Death by Chocolate
  2. July 5, 2011 - RNAs regulate cell death
  3. July 5, 2011 - Surprising culprits behind cell death from fat and sugar overload
Background, Background


Cell movement in response to chemoattractants

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - The forces of attraction: How cells change direction
Background


Chaperones and membrane proteins

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - A chaperone system guides tail-anchored membrane proteins to their destined membrane
Background


Centromeres

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Kinetochores prefer the 'silent' DNA sections of the chromosome
Background


Post-translational remodeling of mRNA and aging in C. elegans

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Researchers flip the switch between development and aging in C. elegans
Background, Background


Ancient photosynthesis

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Calcified clue to ancient photosynthesis
Background


Synthetic biology

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Toward a new DNA: thymine out, chlorouracil in
Background


Archaea

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Old life capable of revealing new tricks after all
Background


Pin1 and mitosis

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Researchers closer to understanding cell-division gatekeeper enzyme
Background


Chromosome size across species

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Discovering the bigger picture in chromosomes
Background


Jaw designs

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Vertebrate jaw design locked 400 million years ago - also here
  2. July 6, 2011 - Jaws did not dominate early oceans
  3. July 7, 2011 - Vertebrate jaw design locked down early
  4. July 7, 2011 - Jaw design 'locked in' 400 million years ago
Background, Background


Cell reprogramming

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Brain cells made from skin could treat Parkinson's
  2. July 8, 2011 - Researchers reprogram brain cells to become heart cells
Background


Swi2/Snf2 remodelers and gene transcription

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - The turn of the corkscrew: Structural analysis uncovers mechanisms of gene expression
Background


Endocytosis

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Endocytosis is simpler than suspected
Background


Sexual reproduction

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Sexual reproduction works thanks to ever-evolving host, parasite relationships: study
  2. July 7, 2011 - Researcher argues that sex reduces genetic variation
  3. July 9, 2011 - 1.5 million sexless years no good for stick insects
  4. July 12, 2011 - Sex and the Red Queen hypothesis
Background


Cyanobacteria

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Getting to know bacteria with 'multiple personalities'
Background



Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior


Dietary fats, endocannabinoids, and appetite

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Endocannabinoids, body's natural marijuana-like chemicals, make fatty foods difficult to resist - also here
  2. July 5, 2011 - Stoner alert: McDonald's gets you legally high
  3. July 6, 2011 - Human gut tells brain to overeat fatty foods
  4. July 8, 2011 - Fats stimulate binge eating
Background, Background


Autism

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Exposure to certain antidepressants in pregnancy may modestly increase risk of autism spectrum disorders
  2. July 4, 2011 - Balance tips toward environment as heritability ebbs in autism?
  3. July 4, 2011 - New Study Implicates Environmental Factors in Autism
  4. July 4, 2011 - Fraternal twins with autism: Is risk in the womb? - also here
  5. July 5, 2011 - Autism study downplays role of genetics
  6. July 5, 2011 - UCSF, Stanford autism study shows surprises
  7. July 7, 2011 - Environment blamed for autism
  8. July 7, 2011 - Autism Study Criticized
  9. July 7, 2011 - Environment plays a big part in autism
  10. July 8, 2011 - New information revealed about a protein implicated in autism and similar disorders; could lead to better drug design
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Shrinking brain could aid diagnosis of clinical depression
  2. July 6, 2011 - Beauty is in the medial orbito-frontal cortex of the beholder, study finds
  3. July 6, 2011 - Beauty is in the brain of the beholder
  4. July 7, 2011 - How the brain processes humour helps us understand emotions felt by vegetative state patients
Background


Intentional forgetting

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - New research shows that we control our forgetfulness - also here
Background


Self-awareness in monkeys

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Rhesus monkeys have a form of self awareness not previously attributed to them - also here, here
Background


Biological motion perception

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Up, down, right, left -- how visual cues help us understand bodily motion - also here
Background


Information flow in the embryonic visual cortex

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Scientists make brain signal discovery
Background


FOXP2 and neural development

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - 'Language Protein' May Help Build Brain Circuits
  2. July 7, 2011 - A gene implicated in speech regulates connectivity of the developing brain
  3. July 8, 2011 - Speech gene has say in brain connections
Background


Brain simulation

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Chips hold the key to understanding the human brain
Background


Memory inhibition by ethanol

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - The biology behind alcohol-induced blackouts - also here
Background


Memory

References:
  1. July 8, 2011 - Gene study offers clues on memory puzzle
  2. July 8, 2011 - How memory is read out in the brain: MB-V2 nerve cells enable the read-out of associative memories
  3. July 8, 2011 - Study demonstrates how memory can be preserved -- and forgetting prevented
Background


Neural signal processing

References:
  1. July 8, 2011 - Scientists discover how best to excite brain cells
Background


Schizophrenia

References:
  1. July 10, 2011 - De novo mutations provide new genetic clues for schizophrenia
Background



Health and medicine


Malaria

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Malarial whodunit continues as study implicates
  2. July 6, 2011 - Simple rapid diagnostic tests for malaria work well
Background


Multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - New Target for Myelin Repair
  2. July 6, 2011 - Study: Breastfeeding does not protect against MS relapses
  3. July 8, 2011 - Common cough medicine may help treat multiple sclerosis
Background


Drug delivery

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - DNA cages 'can survive inside living cells'
  2. July 6, 2011 - Unique gel capsule structure enables co-delivery of different types of drugs
Background


Autoimmune disease

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Why do women suffer autoimmune diseases more often?
  2. July 6, 2011 - Multi-layered armor protects body against immune failure
  3. July 10, 2011 - Scientists unlock genetics of joint disorder ankylosing spondylitis
  4. July 10, 2011 - Genetic study sheds new light on auto-immune arthritis
Background


Obesity and inflammation

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Study shows answers for treating obesity-related diseases may reside in fat tissue
Background, Background


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. July 4, 2011 - Common painkillers linked to irregular heart rhythm: study
  2. July 5, 2011 - Satisfaction with the components of everyday life appears protective against heart disease
  3. July 5, 2011 - Higher daily dose of aspirin could play key role in preventing heart attacks for those with diabetes
  4. July 5, 2011 - Healthy lifestyle associated with low risk of sudden cardiac death in women
  5. July 6, 2011 - Review adds salt to a familiar concern
  6. July 6, 2011 - Salt-heart disease link questioned
  7. July 6, 2011 - Cutting down on salt doesn't reduce your chance of dying
  8. July 6, 2011 - Reducing salt doesn't lower risk: study
  9. July 6, 2011 - Review raises questions over benefits of cutting salt
  10. July 7, 2011 - Not Salt's Fault?
  11. July 8, 2011 - Green tea reduces cholesterol risk
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Searching For Fractals May Help Cancer Cell Testing - also here
  2. July 5, 2011 - Research in fish provides new clues about deadly form of liver cancer
  3. July 5, 2011 - PET scan with [11C]erlotinib may provide noninvasive method to identify TKI-responsive lung tumors
  4. July 5, 2011 - ALK rearrangement found in nearly 10 percent of patients in Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium
  5. July 5, 2011 - Lung tumors in never-smokers show greater genomic instability than those in smokers
  6. July 5, 2011 - High EGFR expression a predictor for improved survival with cetuximab plus chemotherapy
  7. July 5, 2011 - EURTAC Phase III study: Erlotinib nearly doubles progression-free survival vs. chemotherapy
  8. July 5, 2011 - High folate intake may reduce risk of colorectal cancer
  9. July 5, 2011 - No link found between cured meat and pancreatic cancer
  10. July 5, 2011 - Researchers characterize biomechanics of ovarian cells according to phenotype at stages of cancer
  11. July 6, 2011 - Celecoxib may prevent lung cancer in former smokers
  12. July 6, 2011 - Combining therapies appears safe, may benefit patients with advanced liver cancer
  13. July 6, 2011 - Elderly Dutch lung patients' survival improved by new treatment options between 2003-2009
  14. July 6, 2011 - Researchers link genetic marker to rectal cancer treatment
  15. July 6, 2011 - Transcription factor is potential target for liver cancer treatment
  16. July 6, 2011 - Colorectal cancer screenings making a difference, CDC says
  17. July 7, 2011 - TGen presents lung cancer studies at Amsterdam conference
  18. July 7, 2011 - Amrubicin improved response rate and progression-free survival vs. topotecan in Phase III trial
  19. July 7, 2011 - Leukemia And Lymphoma Breakthrough: Half-Matched Transplants May Mean Donors For All
  20. July 8, 2011 - Can gel shrink some cancer tumors?
  21. July 8, 2011 - Pinpointing a tell-tale mark of liver cancer
  22. July 8, 2011 - Targeted agent addition to herceptin has positive effect on metastatic HER-2 breast cancer
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Metabolic shift may offer early cancer clue
  2. July 6, 2011 - First whole-genome lung cancer study set for conference
  3. July 6, 2011 - What causes brain cancer? Understanding glioblastoma at the genetic, molecular level
  4. July 7, 2011 - Scientists find 'brake-override' proteins that enable development of some cancers
  5. July 7, 2011 - Cellular origin of deadly brain cancer is identified - also here
Background


Antioxidants

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Eggs may help prevent heart disease and cancer
Background


Nanobiotechnology

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Talk softly but carry a tiny stick: Stroke prevention and recovery with nanotube-delivered siRNA
  2. July 6, 2011 - Just add water and treat brain cancer
  3. July 7, 2011 - Gold nanoparticles bring scientists closer to a treatment for cancer
Background


Thiazolidinedione drungs and adipose stem cells

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Diabetes drug side effects traced to fat action
Background, Background, Background


Conversion of white fat to brown fat, obesity, and diabetes

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Findings in mice have potential to curb obesity, Type 2 diabetes
Background, Background


Tissue engineering

References:
  1. July 5, 2011 - Researchers engineer functioning small intestine in laboratory experiments
  2. July 6, 2011 - Lab Builds a Fully Functioning Artificial Small Intestine
Background


Reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Radical Reversal
  2. July 6, 2011 - 'Detox protein' is collaborator in pancreatic and lung cancer development
  3. July 6, 2011 - Natural antioxidants could scupper tumour's detox
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Gene therapy stimulates protein that blocks immune attack and prevents Type 1 diabetes in mice
Background


Sunburn and inflammation

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Discovery of why sunburn hurts could lead to new pain relief for inflammatory conditions
  2. July 6, 2011 - Sunburn pain-controlling molecule discovered
  3. July 6, 2011 - Pain molecule find could take the sting out of sunburn
  4. July 7, 2011 - Sunburn offers clues for managing pain
Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. July 6, 2011 - Combination therapy as good as old regimen to prevent full-blown TB in people with/without HIV
Background


Synthetic organs

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Surgeons carry out first synthetic windpipe transplant
  2. July 7, 2011 - Man gets transplanted windpipe grown from stem cells - also here
  3. July 7, 2011 - Cancer patient receives first synthetic organ transplant
  4. July 8, 2011 - What's new about new synthetic organs?
  5. July 8, 2011 - Synthetic Organ Transplant Success
  6. July 8, 2011 - First successful transplantation of a lab-grown windpipe
  7. July 8, 2011 - Man receives world's first synthetic windpipe
  8. July 8, 2011 - Patient gets world's first artificial trachea
  9. July 8, 2011 - Lab-Made Trachea Saves Man
  10. July 11, 2011 - Man's New Windpipe is the World's First Synthetic Organ Transplant
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Targeting antibiotic resistant bacteria - also here
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Scientists devise way to sort brain cells for potential transplants
  2. July 7, 2011 - Stem cells know where they want to go
  3. July 7, 2011 - A drugstore within: Mesenchymal stem cells protect and heal
  4. July 7, 2011 - Groundbreaking research uses stem cells to relieve mouth, face pain
  5. July 7, 2011 - 'Pure' human blood stem-cell discovery opens door to expanding cells for more clinical use
  6. July 7, 2011 - Stem cell injections may offer hope to patients with no other options
  7. July 7, 2011 - Found: the mother of all blood cells
  8. July 8, 2011 - Single stem cell capable of regenerating the entire blood system found
Background


Stem cells and cancer

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - To combat deadly brain cancer, target the stem cells
Background, Background


Universal influenza vaccine

References:
  1. July 7, 2011 - Universal flu vaccine a step closer thanks to discovery of natural antibody
Background, Background


AIDS

References:
  1. July 8, 2011 - Entry prohibited for AIDS viruses: Peptide triazole inhibitors disrupt cell-free HIV-1
  2. July 8, 2011 - Drug designer: New tool reveals mutations that cause HIV-drug resistance - also here
Background


Sleep deprivation and weight gain

References:
  1. July 8, 2011 - Can too little sleep make you gain weight?
Background, Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. July 9, 2011 - Advances in research into Alzheimer's disease
Background


Copyright © 2011 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved