Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 9, Number 48
November 29, 2010


Physical sciences
Technology
Life sciences
Neuroscience, psychology, behavior
Health and medicine
Physical sciences

Gamma-ray bursts
Paleoclimatology
Extrasolar planets
Early galaxy evolution
Clouds and climate modeling
Galaxies and ionized hydrogen clouds
Coronal mass ejections
Earthquakes
Global warming
James Webb Space Telescope
Negative temperature matter
Strange matter stars
Variations in sea level rise
Large Hadron Collider
Water on Mars
Band gaps
Galaxy mergers
T-dwarf stars
Glacier dynamics and sea level rise
Neutrino astronomy
Dark energy
Massive galaxies in the early universe
Cepheid variables
Gravitational wave detection
Connections between galaxy clusters
Enceladus
Planetary nebulae
Magnetic fields in stellar jets
Star formation rate
Symbiotic variable stars

Technology

Graphene
Nanotechnology
Plasmonic virus detection sensor
Entanglement and Bose-Einstein condensates
Topological insulators
Fuel cells
Quantum communiction
Photon Bose-Einstein condensates
Metamaterials
Semiconductor optical interconnects

Life sciences

Rejuvenation of oocytes in C. elegans reproduction
Quality control during mitosis
Genetic variation and reproductive success
Modeling bacterial proliferation
Unexpected genome structure
Spinal cord regeneration in primates
Kinetochores and tension-dependent chromosome stabilization during mitosis
Ribosome structure
Programmable genetic circuits
Cannabis and immune suppression
E. coli O157:H7
Evolution of sex chromosomes
Development of mast cells from adipose tissue stem cells
Evolution of eukaryotes
Telomerase and aging

Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior

Depression
Perception of facial characteristics
Sound perception and expectation
Rapid brain adaptation
Circadian rhythm
Memory erasure
Evolution of mammal brain size
Cognitive maps
Schizophrenia
Brain interconnection
Neuronal migration during brain development
Decision making

Health and medicine

Stem cells
Puberty genes and body fat
Health risks of fructose
Health benefits of α-carotene
Cardiovascular disease
Inflammatory bowel disease
Counteraction of obesity risks by musculature
Cancer
Cancer biology
Antibiotic resistance
Avian flu
Obesity
AIDS
Diabetes
RNAi therapeutics
Multiple sclerosis
Nanobiotechnology
Rheumatoid arthritis
Stem cells and cancer
Parkinson's disease
Diets and weight loss
Alzheimer's disease
Antibiotics
Hepatitis C



Physical sciences


Gamma-ray bursts

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Universe's Most Powerful Explosions Can Leave Black Hole Graves
Background


Paleoclimatology

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Sudden surge in carbon sequestration helped end ancient climate change
Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - 500 planets: it's just the beginning
  2. November 22, 2010 - 500th Alien Planet Discovered, With Hundreds More to Come
Background


Early galaxy evolution

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Making stars: Studies show how cosmic dust and gas shape galaxy evolution
Background


Clouds and climate modeling

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Study could mean greater anticipated global warming
  2. November 23, 2010 - Cloud atlas: Scientist maps the meaning of mid-level clouds
Background


Galaxies and ionized hydrogen clouds

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Why do the ionized gas clouds stream out from galaxies?
Background


Coronal mass ejections

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Profiling the largest solar explosions
Background


Earthquakes

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - 'M8' earthquake simulation breaks computational records, promises better quake models
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Financial crisis causes dip in CO2 levels
  2. November 23, 2010 - North African farmers to lose out by 2050
  3. November 23, 2010 - NASA study finds Earth's lakes are warming
  4. November 23, 2010 - Earth's Largest Lakes Warming, Climate Scientists Find
  5. November 23, 2010 - Climate pledges not enough to limit warming
  6. November 24, 2010 - Earth's lakes are warming up, says NASA
  7. November 24, 2010 - World's Lakes Getting Hotter, More Than the Air - also here
  8. November 24, 2010 - UN: Greenhouse Gas Concentration at Record Level - also here
  9. November 24, 2010 - Greenhouse gases at record levels: UN agency
  10. November 25, 2010 - 2010 so far "tied for hottest year"
  11. November 26, 2010 - World warmer, short-term trends need study: report
  12. December 1, 2010 - World's lakes warming due to climate change
  13. December 2, 2010 - Global Warming Burning Lakes?
Background


James Webb Space Telescope

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Troubles Surface for Webb Telescope
Background


Negative temperature matter

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Negative temperature, infinitely hot
Background


Strange matter stars

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Neutron stars may go completely strange thanks to dark matter
Background, Background, Background


Variations in sea level rise

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Satellites Reveal Differences In Sea Level Rises - also here
Background, Background


Large Hadron Collider

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Early Universe was a liquid: First results from the Large Hadron Collider's ALICE experiment
  2. November 26, 2010 - Large Hadron Collider experiments bring new insight into primordial universe - also here
  3. November 26, 2010 - New insight into primordial universe from the LHC
  4. November 30, 2010 - LHC Creates Cosmic Primordial Soup and Probes Strange Particle Jets
  5. November 30, 2010 - What did it take for a smooth transition?
  6. December 1, 2010 - Large Hadron Collider Shows Early Universe's Primordial Soup
  7. December 2, 2010 - Getting the lead in turns LHC into a mini Big Bang machine
  8. December 2, 2010 - Big Bang Poured Out "Liquid" Universe, Atom Smasher Hints
Background


Water on Mars

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Shallow groundwater reservoirs may have been common on Mars
Background


Band gaps

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Enhanced efficiency when determining band gap in solids
Background


Galaxy mergers

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Spitzer sees shrouded burst of stars
  2. November 24, 2010 - Cosmic Train Wreck
  3. November 26, 2010 - Collisions of two galaxies may have formed Andromeda
Background


T-dwarf stars

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - T-dwarf stars finally reveal their mysterious secrets
Background


Glacier dynamics and sea level rise

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Predicting sea level rise: Understanding how icebergs form could lead to better forecasts
  2. November 28, 2010 - Sea level-ice sheet dynamics may help stabilize Antarctica's ice
Background


Neutrino astronomy

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - NSF signs $34.5-million operating agreement as Antarctic neutrino detector nears completion - also here
Background, Background


Dark energy

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Dark energy on firmer footing
  2. November 24, 2010 - Einstein's 'Biggest Blunder' Turns Out to Be Right
  3. November 24, 2010 - Study backs Einstein notion on expanding universe - also here
  4. November 24, 2010 - Dark energy and flat Universe exposed by simple method
  5. November 24, 2010 - Distant Galaxies Confirm Dark Energy's Existence and Universe's Flatness
  6. November 24, 2010 - Dark Energy Theory Gets a Boost From New Galactic Measurements
  7. November 25, 2010 - Galaxies pin down dark energy
  8. November 26, 2010 - Cosmology and dark energy revealed by geometry of galaxy pairs
Background


Massive galaxies in the early universe

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Massive Galaxies Formed When Universe Was Young - also here, here
Background, Background


Cepheid variables

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Pulsating star mystery solved
  2. November 24, 2010 - 50-Year Mystery of Strange Pulsating Stars Solved
  3. November 26, 2010 - Accurately weighing a pulsating giant
Background


Gravitational wave detection

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - The music of gravitational waves
Background


Connections between galaxy clusters

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Astronomers probe 'sandbar' between islands of galaxies
  2. November 29, 2010 - Boomerang-Shaped Galaxy Reveals Clues to Colossal Clusters
Background


Enceladus

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Upcoming flybys could provide clues to Enceladus interior
Background


Planetary nebulae

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Hubble's Striking Photo of Dying Star Heralds Birth of Nebula
Background


Magnetic fields in stellar jets

References:
  1. November 25, 2010 - Discovery at Young Star Hints Magnetism Common to All Cosmic Jets - also here, here
  2. November 25, 2010 - Stars Love Jets, Cosmic Study Shows
Background


Star formation rate

References:
  1. November 26, 2010 - The rate of star formation
Background


Symbiotic variable stars

References:
  1. November 26, 2010 - Possible eruption on brink for symbiotic variable star
Background



Technology


Graphene

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Damaging graphene to create a band gap
  2. November 26, 2010 - Graphene supercapacitor breaks storage record
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Scientists imitate nature to engineer nanofilms
  2. November 23, 2010 - World-first to provide building blocks for new nano devices
  3. November 23, 2010 - Mechanical engineering at the molecular level: Self-assembly of nano-rotors
  4. November 26, 2010 - Guest molecule builds 3D nanostructures
Background


Plasmonic virus detection sensor

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - New tool detects Ebola, Marburg quickly, easily
  2. November 22, 2010 - Plasmonic sensor detects viruses
Background, Background


Entanglement and Bose-Einstein condensates

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Entangling a pair of cantilevers with a Bose Einstein Condensate
Background, Background


Topological insulators

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - High magnetic fields coax new discoveries from topological insulators
Background, Background


Fuel cells

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Novel fuel cell catalyst lowers need for precious metal
Background


Quantum communiction

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Qubits, meet photons
Background


Photon Bose-Einstein condensates

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Chilled light enters a new phase
  2. November 24, 2010 - German physicists create a 'super-photon'
  3. November 24, 2010 - Bosons bossed into Bose-Einstein condensate
  4. November 26, 2010 - Report: Physicists Discover Super-Photon
  5. November 30, 2010 - Researchers get trapped photons to act like massive particles
  6. January 6, 2011 - A Bose-Einstein condensate of photons
Background, Background


Metamaterials

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Acoustic superlens a very cool proof-of-principle
Background


Semiconductor optical interconnects

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Short, on-chip light pulses for ultrafast data transfer within computers - also here
Background, Background



Life sciences


Rejuvenation of oocytes in C. elegans reproduction

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Understanding ageing by studying reproduction benefits
Background


Quality control during mitosis

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Trigger mechanism provides 'quality control' in cell division
Background


Genetic variation and reproductive success

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - The spice of life: Variety is also good for hares
Background


Modeling bacterial proliferation

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Cell growth, gene expression, and their interdependence
Background, Background


Unexpected genome structure

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Big reveals for genome of tiny animal
Background


Spinal cord regeneration in primates

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Unlike rodents, primates can grow new spinal nerve connections
Background


Kinetochores and tension-dependent chromosome stabilization during mitosis

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Finger-trap tension stabilizes cells' chromosome-separating machinery
  2. November 25, 2010 - Getting a tighter grip on cell division - also here
Background


Ribosome structure

References:
  1. November 25, 2010 - Elusive protein factory mapped at last
  2. December 1, 2010 - The eukaryotic ribosome unveils its structure
Background


Programmable genetic circuits

References:
  1. November 25, 2010 - Bespoke genetic circuits rewire human cells
  2. November 26, 2010 - Guiding cancer cells to their fate
  3. November 29, 2010 - Researchers build genetic devices to program cell actions
Background, Background, Background


Cannabis and immune suppression

References:
  1. November 25, 2010 - New study reveals how cannabis suppresses immune functions
Background


E. coli O157:H7

References:
  1. November 26, 2010 - The end of hamburger disease
Background


Evolution of sex chromosomes

References:
  1. November 26, 2010 - Sex and the single chromosome
Background, Background


Development of mast cells from adipose tissue stem cells

References:
  1. November 26, 2010 - Adipose tissue produces cells involved in immune response
Background, Background


Evolution of eukaryotes

References:
  1. November 27, 2010 - Sewage Water Bacteria: 'Missing Link' in Early Evolution of Life on Earth? - also here
Background


Telomerase and aging

References:
  1. November 28, 2010 - Telomerase reverses ageing process
  2. November 28, 2010 - Harvard scientists reverse the ageing process in mice - now for humans
  3. November 29, 2010 - The Curious Case of the Backwardly Aging Mouse
  4. November 29, 2010 - Age-Reversing Drugs on the Horizon? Not So Fast.
  5. November 29, 2010 - Telomere Tweaks Reverse Aging in Mice
  6. November 29, 2010 - Partial reversal of aging achieved in mice - also here
  7. November 29, 2010 - Alzheimers and aging advances uncovered
  8. November 29, 2010 - An enzyme leads the dance of immortality and death
  9. November 29, 2010 - Scientists Find Way to Partially Reverse Aging in Mice
  10. November 30, 2010 - Gene reactivation reverses aging-related brain deficits in mice
Background, Background



Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior


Depression

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Solitary fish hit rock bottom
Background


Perception of facial characteristics

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - A tilt of the head can lure a mate
  2. November 24, 2010 - Study finds that the same face may look male or female depending on where it appears in person's field of view
Background, Background


Sound perception and expectation

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Banking on predictability, the mind increases efficiency - also here
Background


Rapid brain adaptation

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Sensory detection and discrimination: Study reveals neural basis of rapid brain adaptation
Background


Circadian rhythm

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - A correctly set circadian clock, whatever the light intensity
  2. November 22, 2010 - Scientists clock on to how sunlight shapes daily rhythms - also here
Background


Memory erasure

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Method to erase traumatic memories may be on the horizon
Background


Evolution of mammal brain size

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Socialising led to bigger brains in some mammals
Background


Cognitive maps

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Getting lost in buildings: Architecture can bias your cognitive map
Background


Schizophrenia

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Schizophrenia could be revealed by distinctive sleep pattern
Background


Brain interconnection

References:
  1. November 25, 2010 - In mice, whisker recoil maps to sensory, not motor, part of brain
Background


Neuronal migration during brain development

References:
  1. November 25, 2010 - Researchers identify a molecular switch that controls neuronal migration in the developing brain
Background, Background


Decision making

References:
  1. November 26, 2010 - Subconscious saves the day when hungry brain fails
Background



Health and medicine


Stem cells

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Second human embryonic stem cell clinical trial to start
  2. November 22, 2010 - Feds OK 2nd human study of embryonic stem cells - also here
  3. November 22, 2010 - Second Trial Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells Gets Go-Ahead
  4. November 22, 2010 - FDA Green-Lights an Embryonic Stem Cell Treatment for Vision Loss
  5. November 22, 2010 - Research carries cautionary warning for future stem cell applications
  6. November 22, 2010 - Stem cells in fat may help repair damaged hearts
  7. November 22, 2010 - Stem cell scientists seek way to grow teeth
  8. November 22, 2010 - Stem cell trial offers hope for vision patients
  9. November 22, 2010 - Second US company gets stem cell go-ahead
Background


Puberty genes and body fat

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Puberty genes linked to body fat
Background


Health risks of fructose

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - The not-so-sweet truth about sugar -- a risk choice?
Background, Background, Background


Health benefits of α-carotene

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - High alpha-carotene levels associated with longer life
  2. November 23, 2010 - Eating orange and dark green vegetables linked to longer life
Background, Background


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Study ties parental divorce in childhood to stroke in adulthood
  2. November 23, 2010 - Erectile dysfunction may indicate an increased risk of heart disease
  3. November 24, 2010 - Binge drinking may lead to higher risk of heart disease
  4. November 25, 2010 - Researchers discover genetic markers that identify people at risk of clot formation and heart attack
  5. November 26, 2010 - Binge drinking linked to heart disease
  6. November 26, 2010 - A high BMI in childhood linked to greater heart disease risk in adolescence
  7. November 26, 2010 - Monitoring of heart attack and stroke patients improved by new test
  8. November 26, 2010 - Genetic profile guides search for the right blood pressure drug
Background


Inflammatory bowel disease

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - 30 new gene variants linked to Crohn's disease
  2. November 22, 2010 - Breast milk sugar promotes colitis in offspring
Background


Counteraction of obesity risks by musculature

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Fat yet muscular mouse provides clues to improving cardiovascular health
Background, Background


Cancer

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Prostate cancer clinical stage does not predict recurrence
  2. November 22, 2010 - Targeted breast ultrasound plays key role in evaluating breast abnormalities in women younger than 40
  3. November 22, 2010 - True whole-body field view using PET/CT could allow doctors to more accurately manage cancer patients
  4. November 22, 2010 - Study finds aggressive surgery is best for children with brain tumors
  5. November 22, 2010 - A divide and conquer strategy for childhood brain cancer
  6. November 22, 2010 - Black children more likely to die from neuroblastoma, study finds
  7. November 23, 2010 - Method to trick cancer cells to self-destruct shows promise in mice
  8. November 23, 2010 - Fecal immunochemical testing best and most cost-effective method for screening for colorectal cancer
  9. November 23, 2010 - Finding the 'fingerprints' of prostate cancer
  10. November 23, 2010 - Less invasive method for determining stage of lung cancer shows benefits
  11. November 23, 2010 - Too much of a good thing: Important mechanism in hormone-sensitive breast cancer uncovered
  12. November 24, 2010 - The roots of resistance
  13. November 24, 2010 - New imaging technique accurately finds cancer cells, fast
  14. November 24, 2010 - Researchers discover drug resistance mechanisms in most common form of melanoma
  15. November 24, 2010 - Researchers shine light on how some melanoma tumors evade drug treatment
  16. November 24, 2010 - Many cancers detected late in US: study
  17. November 24, 2010 - Restoring the gene for cancer protein p53 slows spread of advanced tumors
  18. November 24, 2010 - Study uses the patient's tumor to form vaccine
  19. November 24, 2010 - A decade of refinements in transplantation improves long-term survival of blood cancers
  20. November 24, 2010 - Many preventable cancers caught at late stage: CDC
  21. November 24, 2010 - Studies show how skin cancer evades promising drug
  22. November 25, 2010 - Melanomas develop drug resistance
  23. November 26, 2010 - Large tree-like sugar clusters provide potential in vivo probes for cancer cells
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - New function of gene in promoting cancer found
  2. November 24, 2010 - The most aggressive forms of breast cancer elude cellular control mechanisms in order to expand
Background


Antibiotic resistance

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Engineering researcher finds new way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  2. November 22, 2010 - Molecular simulations confirm role of functional rotation in multidrug resistance
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Hong Kong bird flu patient improves
Background


Obesity

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - New sleep cycle discovery explains why fatty diets during pregnancy make kids obese
  2. November 23, 2010 - Obesity On the Rise in Animals
  3. November 24, 2010 - Lab animals and pets face obesity epidemic - also here
  4. November 24, 2010 - Why are we getting fatter? Researchers seek a mysterious culprit - also here
  5. December 10, 2010 - Fat Canaries in a Coal Mine
Background


AIDS

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - For HIV-positive patients, delayed treatment a costly decision
  2. November 23, 2010 - Drugs to treat HIV found to prevent infection
  3. November 23, 2010 - Once-a-Day Pill Reduces HIV Infections - Would People Actually Take It?
  4. November 23, 2010 - Antiretroviral drugs may prevent HIV infection - also here
  5. November 23, 2010 - HIV Drugs Taken Preemptively Cut Rate of Infection Almost in Half
  6. November 23, 2010 - 3 big developments make AIDS outlook more hopeful - also here
  7. November 23, 2010 - Daily dose of HIV drug reduces risk of HIV infection
  8. November 23, 2010 - Daily Pill Greatly Lowers AIDS Risk, Study Finds
  9. November 23, 2010 - Once-daily pill helps prevent HIV infection in men
  10. November 23, 2010 - Gilead's Truvada protects uninfected men from AIDS
  11. November 23, 2010 - Gilead's Truvada pill lowers HIV infection rate
  12. November 23, 2010 - HIV Drugs May Prevent Infection in Healthy Individuals
  13. November 24, 2010 - Deciphering how CD4 T cells die during HIV infection
  14. November 24, 2010 - Anti-AIDS groups hail drug but worry over cost - also here
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. November 22, 2010 - Depression may be both consequence of and risk factor for diabetes
  2. November 23, 2010 - Combining aerobic and resistance training appears helpful for patients with diabetes
  3. November 23, 2010 - Best diabetes fitness plan: aerobics plus weights - also here
Background


RNAi therapeutics

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Drug giants turn their backs on RNA interference
Background


Multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Findings suggest new cause, possible treatment for multiple sclerosis
Background


Nanobiotechnology

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Nanoparticle thermotherapy as a chemotherapy alternative
  2. November 25, 2010 - Magnetic field directs nanoparticles to tumors
  3. November 25, 2010 - Expandable nanoparticles show promise in treating lethal abdominal cavity tumors
Background


Rheumatoid arthritis

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis crucial to positive outcomes for patients
  2. November 23, 2010 - Cigarette smoking increases rheumatoid arthritis risk in African-Americans
Background


Stem cells and cancer

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Discovery halts breast cancer stem cells
Background, Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. November 23, 2010 - Initiative hopes to expedite cell-based treatments for Parkinson's
  2. November 24, 2010 - New discovery in Parkinson's research
Background


Diets and weight loss

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Danish researchers finally solve the obesity riddle
  2. November 24, 2010 - Study identifies foods that promote weight maintenance
  3. November 25, 2010 - Go for turkey, not stuffing to keep the weight off - also here
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Diabetes drug could work against Alzheimer's
  2. November 24, 2010 - Exercise important for those at risk of Alzheimer's
  3. November 24, 2010 - Chronic high cholesterol diet produces brain damage
  4. November 28, 2010 - Gene therapy prevents memory problems in mice with Alzheimer's disease
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. November 24, 2010 - Erythromycin A produced in E. coli for first time
Background


Hepatitis C

References:
  1. November 28, 2010 - First-ever covalent irreversible inhibition of a protease central to hepatitis C infection
Background


Copyright © 2010 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved