Open Questions Chronicle

[OQC Home] [Open Questions] [Site Map] [Previous] [Next]

Volume 9, Number 37
September 13, 2010


Physical sciences
Technology
Life sciences
Neuroscience, psychology, behavior
Health and medicine
Physical sciences

Earthquakes
Self-organization of active systems
Galaxy mergers
Chaos in the very early universe
Extrasolar planets
Cosmic microwave background
Global warming
X-ray jets
Solar Probe Plus
Paleoclimatology
Intermediate mass black holes
Atmospheric oxygenation
Normal galaxy structure
Star-forming regions
Water on Mars
CO2 emissions
Dark matter in the Sun
Cosmic magnetic fields
Quantum random numbers
James Webb Space Telescope
Five dimensional black strings
Solar flares
Formation of massive stars
Ocean circulation

Technology

Quantum information
Linac Coherent Light Source
Molecular electronics
Photovoltaics
Colossal magnetoresistance in complex oxides
Superconductivity
Optical frequencey combs
Graphene
Optical data networking
Brain-computer interface
Computer vision
Carbon nanotubes
DNA sequencing and graphene
Quantum cryptography

Life sciences

Homo floresiensis
Origin of viruses
Epigenetics
Centrosomes
Selfishness in Staphylococcus aureus
Autophagy
Sexual selection
Insulin regulation of translation
Insulin facilitation of adipocyte glucose intake
Bacterial degradation of xylan
Bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides
Gene networks and disease
Acetylation of neuron microtubules
Age-associated increse in aneuploidy
Telomere avoidance of DNA damage detection
Intrinsically disordered proteins
Master regulatory gene of spinal cord motor neurons
Dendritic cells in non-mammalian vertebrates
Mycoplasmas
Pheromones, sexual reproduction, and pathogen virulence
Longevity and histones
Microbial immune system
Sexual selection in plankton
Induced pluripotent stem cells
Protein quality control
Regeneration of cardiac myocytes

Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior

Effective learning techniques
Schizophrenia
Autism
Brain-imaging studies
Male-female differences on mental rotation performance
Brain connection mapping
Gish and learning in Drosophila
Cocaine addiction
Interneurons
Memory acquisition
Development of connections in the brain
Number sense
Prosopagnosia
Pyramidal neurons
Modeling nonlinear neuron activity

Health and medicine

Pro-apoptotic cancer therapy using small conditional RNA
Antibiotics
Cardiovascular disease
Obesity
Antibiotic resistance
Malaria
Dementia
Gene therapy
Cancer
Sleep deficiency, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
Health risks of low carbohydrate diet with meat
Stem cells
Health risks of inflammation
Progeria and cardiovascular disease
Rheumatoid arthritis
Drug delivery
AIDS
Hepatitis C
Alzheimer's disease
MicroRNA and cancer
Insulin and septicemia
Parkinson's disease
Tuberculosis
Influenza transmission
Antioxidants
Diabetes
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with heteroresistance



Physical sciences


Earthquakes

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - NZ quake reveals unknown fault
  2. September 8, 2010 - Fault maps could aid earthquake forecasts
  3. September 8, 2010 - Big quake aftershocks plague New Zealand city - also here
  4. September 9, 2010 - The predictable events of the February earthquake in Chile
Background


Self-organization of active systems

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Filaments swarm and swim in circles
Background


Galaxy mergers

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Galactic Cannibals Discovered in Deep Space
  2. September 7, 2010 - Distant, Big Galaxies Caught Cannibalizing Smaller Ones
  3. September 8, 2010 - Galactic tendrils shed light on evolution of spiral galaxies
  4. September 9, 2010 - New Proof Spiral Galaxies Eat, Digest Dwarfs
Background


Chaos in the very early universe

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Universe Chaotic From Very Beginning - also here, here
Background, Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Can We Spot Volcanoes on Alien Worlds? Astronomers Say Yes. - also here, here, here
  2. September 7, 2010 - To Find Alien Volcanic Eruptions, Look for Foul Gas
  3. September 7, 2010 - Astronomers: Alien world volcanoes likely detectable
  4. September 10, 2010 - Astronomers to detect alien volcanoes
  5. September 10, 2010 - New telescope may unveil alien volcanoes
  6. September 10, 2010 - Violent Tides Destroy Huge, Hot Alien Worlds
  7. September 10, 2010 - Deadly tides mean early exit for hot Jupiters - also here, here, here
Background


Cosmic microwave background

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Ripples in the cosmic background
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - New study slashes estimate of icecap loss
  2. September 7, 2010 - Research shows continued decline of Oregon's largest glacier
  3. September 9, 2010 - Main climate threat from CO2 sources yet to be built
  4. September 9, 2010 - Fourth warmest U.S. summer on record according to NOAA
Background


X-ray jets

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - X-Ray Jets
Background


Solar Probe Plus

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - First mission to touch the Sun
Background


Paleoclimatology

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - 'Deep Freeze' Didn't Affect Southern Hemisphere
  2. September 8, 2010 - Study Adds Clue to How Last Ice Age Ended
Background


Intermediate mass black holes

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Extreme X-rays may be signature of lame black hole
  2. September 8, 2010 - Extreme X-ray source supports new class of black hole - also here
  3. September 8, 2010 - New class of black hole possibly confirmed
Background


Atmospheric oxygenation

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Pilbara find points to earliest life
  2. September 9, 2010 - Oxygen production may have begun 270 million years earlier
Background


Normal galaxy structure

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Spiral Galaxy Like Our Own Shines With Pink Clouds
  2. September 9, 2010 - NGC 300: A nearby galactic exemplar - also here
Background


Star-forming regions

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - The Heart of a Rose
  2. September 10, 2010 - Rosette Nebula Sparkles In New Photo
Background


Water on Mars

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Carbon dioxide measurements suggest liquid water and volcanoes in past 100 million years
  2. September 9, 2010 - Mars Drops Hints of an Active Past Involving Water
  3. September 9, 2010 - Phoenix Mars Lander finds surprises about red planet's watery past
  4. September 10, 2010 - NASA data shed new light on water and volcanoes on Mars - also here, here
Background


CO2 emissions

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Carbon Emissions Not at Doomsday Level - Yet
  2. September 9, 2010 - No new cars or power plants? Still locked into 1.3° of climate change
  3. September 9, 2010 - Warming Solution: Just Stop Cold?
  4. September 9, 2010 - How Much Global Warming Is Guaranteed Even If We Stopped Building Coal-Fired Power Plants Today?
Background


Dark matter in the Sun

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Astronomers staring at the sun hope to see dark matter
  2. September 9, 2010 - How can we use neutrinos to probe dark matter in the Sun?
  3. September 10, 2010 - Searching the Sun for dark matter
Background


Cosmic magnetic fields

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Origin of magnetic fields may lie in special relativity's spacetime distortions
  2. September 10, 2010 - Cosmic question
Background


Quantum random numbers

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Random numbers game with quantum dice
Background


James Webb Space Telescope

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Webb telescope's guiding light from Canada received by NASA Goddard
  2. September 10, 2010 - First James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror segment to achieve final step
Background


Five dimensional black strings

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Physicists investigate fate of five-dimensional black strings
  2. September 17, 2010 - Cosmic nudity
Background


Solar flares

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - C3-class solar flare erupts on Sept. 8, 2010
  2. September 10, 2010 - Sun Unleashes Impressive Solar Flare
  3. September 15, 2010 - Spitfire Sun
Background


Formation of massive stars

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Making massive stars
Background


Ocean circulation

References:
  1. September 12, 2010 - Ocean conveyor-belt model stirred up
Background



Technology


Quantum information

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Physicists Build A Memory That Stores Entanglement
Background


Linac Coherent Light Source

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - LCLS comes online
Background, Background


Molecular electronics

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Cobalt-controlled communication: Fine performance tuning of organometallic molecular wire
Background, Background


Photovoltaics

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Imec reports large-area silicon solar cells with high efficiency
  2. September 8, 2010 - Forcing mismatched elements together could yield better solar cells
Background


Colossal magnetoresistance in complex oxides

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Studying transition between insulating and conducting states in complex oxides
Background


Superconductivity

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Unconventional pairs
  2. September 10, 2010 - Many roads lead to superconductivity - also here
  3. September 10, 2010 - Superconductors face the future
Background


Optical frequencey combs

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Tiny resonators generate a large optical spectrum
Background


Graphene

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - A spin on graphene
  2. September 8, 2010 - Researchers hear puzzling new physics from graphene quartet's quantum harmonies
Background


Optical data networking

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - With 'slow light', the promise of low-power, all-optical data networks
Background


Brain-computer interface

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Scientists Decode Words from Brain Signals - also here
  2. September 7, 2010 - Electrodes translate brain waves into words
  3. September 8, 2010 - Fiber optic interface to link robotic limbs, human brain - also here, here
Background


Computer vision

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Researchers develop method to help computer vision systems decipher outdoor scenes - also here, here
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Scientists observe single ions moving through tiny carbon-nanotube channel - also here, here
  2. September 10, 2010 - Researchers develop a way to funnel solar energy
Background


DNA sequencing and graphene

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Graphene may hold key to speeding up DNA sequencing
Background, Background


Quantum cryptography

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Japanese researchers succeed in quantum cryptographic key distribution from single-photon emitter at 50 km
Background



Life sciences


Homo floresiensis

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Researchers offer alternate theory for found skull's asymmetry
Background


Origin of viruses

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Tracking viruses back in time - also here
Background, Background


Epigenetics

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Largest ever epigenetics project launched
Background


Centrosomes

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Researchers decode function and protein content of the centrosome
Background


Selfishness in Staphylococcus aureus

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Backstabbing bacteria: A new treatment for infection?
Background


Autophagy

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - With HMGB1's help, cells dine in
Background


Sexual selection

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - These Dance Moves Are Irresistible
  2. September 8, 2010 - Study reveals dance moves that win dates
  3. September 8, 2010 - The right moves for men on the dance floor
  4. September 9, 2010 - Researchers uncover dance moves to impress
Background


Insulin regulation of translation

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Insulin regulates translation
  2. September 7, 2010 - A new role for insulin in cell survival, cell metabolism and stress response
Background


Insulin facilitation of adipocyte glucose intake

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Study shows how insulin stimulates fat cells to take in glucose
Background, Background


Bacterial degradation of xylan

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Microbial breakthrough impacts health, agriculture, biofuels
Background


Bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Unusual lipopolysaccharide enables symbiosis between bacterium, fungus
Background


Gene networks and disease

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Gene networks underlie disease?
Background


Acetylation of neuron microtubules

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Study identifies critical 'traffic engineer' of the nervous system - also here, here, here
Background, Background


Age-associated increse in aneuploidy

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Study says aging reduces centromere cohesion, disrupts reproduction
Background, Background


Telomere avoidance of DNA damage detection

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Why chromosomes never tie their shoelaces
Background, Background


Intrinsically disordered proteins

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Research divines structure for class of proteins
Background


Master regulatory gene of spinal cord motor neurons

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Single gene regulates motor neurons in spinal cord
Background


Dendritic cells in non-mammalian vertebrates

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Dendritic cells found in zebrafish
Background


Mycoplasmas

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Chopping and changing in the microbial world: How mycoplasmas stay alive
Background


Pheromones, sexual reproduction, and pathogen virulence

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Linking microbial sex and virulence
Background


Longevity and histones

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - A cellular secret to long life
Background


Microbial immune system

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Scientists identify key enzyme in microbial immune system - also here
Background


Sexual selection in plankton

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Choosy plankton play 'sex games'
Background


Induced pluripotent stem cells

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - A smart use for wisdom teeth: Making stem cells
Background


Protein quality control

References:
  1. September 12, 2010 - Scientists solve long-standing mystery of protein 'quality control' mechanism
Background


Regeneration of cardiac myocytes

References:
  1. September 12, 2010 - Working to rebuild our hearts
Background



Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior


Effective learning techniques

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits
Background


Schizophrenia

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Study examines association between urban living and psychotic disorders - also here, here
  2. September 6, 2010 - Combining medication and psychosocial treatments may benefit patients with early-stage schizophrenia
  3. September 7, 2010 - Low vitamin D linked to schizophrenia
  4. September 7, 2010 - Low pre-natal vitamin D doubles schizophrenia risk
  5. September 15, 2010 - Can Cities Make Us Crazy?
Background


Autism

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Visual pattern preference may be indicator of autism in toddlers
  2. September 10, 2010 - Misfolded neural proteins linked to autism disorders - also here, here
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Ritalin improves brain function, task performance in cocaine abusers
  2. September 9, 2010 - Biofeedback for your brain?
Background


Male-female differences on mental rotation performance

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Having a male co-twin improves mental rotation performance in females
Background


Brain connection mapping

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Mapping a brain atlas
Background


Gish and learning in Drosophila

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Scientists identify new gene for memory
Background


Cocaine addiction

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Brain mechanism linked to relapse after cocaine withdrawal
Background


Interneurons

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Researchers find that interneurons are not all created equally
Background


Memory acquisition

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Why some memories stick
  2. September 9, 2010 - People learn new information more effectively when brain activity is consistent, research shows
  3. September 10, 2010 - A Memory Aid: Consistent Brain Patterns
Background, Background


Development of connections in the brain

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Scans set standard for how connectivity evolves during maturation
  2. September 9, 2010 - Mental maturity scan tracks brain development - also here, here
  3. September 9, 2010 - 'Five-minute scan' to check child's brain development
  4. September 14, 2010 - Researchers able to determine brain maturity through analyzing MRI scans
Background, Background


Number sense

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Child's 'mental number line' affects memory for numbers
Background


Prosopagnosia

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - The brain needs to remember faces in 3-dimensions
Background


Pyramidal neurons

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - New hot spot for the genesis of signaling neurons in the adult brain discovered
Background


Modeling nonlinear neuron activity

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - For rapid non-linear information processing in the brain, small synaptic impulses are key
Background



Health and medicine


Pro-apoptotic cancer therapy using small conditional RNA

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - New treatment activates death program in cancer cells - also here, here
  2. September 6, 2010 - Caltech Scientists Create New Process to "Program" Cancer Cell Death - also here
  3. September 7, 2010 - A targeted cancer therapy?
Background, Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Cockroach brains could be rich stores of new antibiotics - also here, here
  2. September 6, 2010 - Insect brains 'are source of antibiotics' to fight MRSA
  3. September 7, 2010 - The health benefits of cockroaches
  4. September 8, 2010 - New antibiotics might come from the brains of cockroaches
  5. September 9, 2010 - Cockroach Brains May Hold New Antibiotics?
  6. September 9, 2010 - Cockroach brains, coming to a pharmacy near you - also here
Background


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Picking right blood pressure medicine challenging - also here
  2. September 6, 2010 - 'Jailbreak' bacteria can trigger heart disease
  3. September 7, 2010 - An important genetic cardiovascular risk factor explained
  4. September 8, 2010 - Use of informatics, EMRs enable genetic study of vascular disease
  5. September 8, 2010 - Study links cholesterol, nonstick coating chemical
  6. September 9, 2010 - High stress hormone levels linked to increased cardiovascular mortality
  7. September 9, 2010 - Simplified heart-risk guideline may miscalculate risk for millions
Background


Obesity

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Short nighttime sleep duration among infants, young children associated with obesity in later life
  2. September 8, 2010 - Brain cells determine obesity -- not lack of willpower: study
  3. September 9, 2010 - Appetite hormones may predict weight regain after dieting
Background


Antibiotic resistance

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Japan detects its first case of NDM-1 superbug
  2. September 7, 2010 - Japan confirms its first case of new superbug gene - also here
Background


Malaria

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Children with sickle cell suffer more severe malaria
  2. September 9, 2010 - How Mosquitoes Fight Malaria
  3. September 9, 2010 - Most effective malaria drug regimens highlighted in study
  4. September 10, 2010 - Hope for malaria may be inside African mosquitoes
Background


Dementia

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Study finds mild cognitive impairment is more common in men
  2. September 7, 2010 - Men have more "senior moments" of memory loss than women
  3. September 9, 2010 - B vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - also here
  4. September 9, 2010 - B vitamins found to slow progression of dementia
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. September 6, 2010 - Researchers define role of CEP290 in maintaining ciliary function
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Rare victory in fight against melanoma
  2. September 7, 2010 - Researchers uncover activation signal for Aurora-A oncogene
  3. September 7, 2010 - After resection, common treatment of pancreatic cancer as effective as chemotherapy drug dose
  4. September 7, 2010 - Multivitamin use doesn't impact colon cancer outcomes
  5. September 7, 2010 - Gambling on breast scans
  6. September 7, 2010 - Researchers find diet-induced obesity accelerates leukemia
  7. September 7, 2010 - New lymphoma treatment shows promise in dogs
  8. September 7, 2010 - Researchers identify gene set that shows which patients benefit from chemo after surgery
  9. September 7, 2010 - Developers of cancer pill tout biopsy/tweak method
  10. September 8, 2010 - Mutated gene cited in some ovarian cancers
  11. September 8, 2010 - Researchers identify genes tied to deadliest ovarian cancers
  12. September 8, 2010 - Questioning the safety of certain 'healthful' plant-based antioxidants
  13. September 8, 2010 - Investigating better endpoints for immunotherapy trials
  14. September 9, 2010 - Promising treatment for metastatic melanoma 'fast tracked' by FDA
  15. September 9, 2010 - Scientific breakdown of cancer reveals promising results
  16. September 9, 2010 - Abnormal body weight related to increased mortality in colon cancer patients
  17. September 9, 2010 - Two gene mutations mark deadly ovarian cancer - also here
  18. September 9, 2010 - Multivitamins may not slow colon cancer
  19. September 9, 2010 - Developers of cancer pill tout biopsy/tweak method
  20. September 10, 2010 - Study backs prostate screening for high risk men
Background


Sleep deficiency, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Short sleepers at higher risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease - also here, here
Background, Background, Background


Health risks of low carbohydrate diet with meat

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Low-Carb Diets Heavy on Meat May Raise Health Risks - also here
  2. September 7, 2010 - Study: Some Low-Carb Diets Up Cancer, Death Risk
  3. September 7, 2010 - Atkins does not extend your life - more to come
Background, Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Physical environment influences stem cell development
  2. September 7, 2010 - Researchers find solution to cell death problem vexing stem cell research
  3. September 9, 2010 - Keeping stem cells from changing fates
  4. September 10, 2010 - Stem cell research: What progress has been made, what is its potential?
Background


Health risks of inflammation

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Inflammation is associated with lower intelligence and premature death
Background


Progeria and cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - The rare aging disease, Progeria, linked to aging in the general population
Background, Background


Rheumatoid arthritis

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Regular statin use is associated with a reduced risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis
  2. September 7, 2010 - Casing the joint
  3. September 8, 2010 - Scientists identify molecular gatekeeper of arthritis
  4. September 8, 2010 - Scientists have found a significant link between taking cholesterol-lowering statin drugs like Lipitor or Crestor and a reduced risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Background


Drug delivery

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Custom-made gels suitable for drug delivery
Background


AIDS

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Nevirapine use may be beneficial for some HIV-infected children who have achieved viral suppression
  2. September 8, 2010 - Novel sensing mechanism discovered in dendritic cells to increase immune response to HIV
Background


Hepatitis C

References:
  1. September 7, 2010 - Vertex hep C drug shines in final Phase III study - also here
  2. September 7, 2010 - Idenix hep C drugs on clinical hold
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Researchers identify potential new drug for neurodegenerative disease
  2. September 8, 2010 - Harmful amyloid interferes with trash pickup for cells in Alzheimer's disease
  3. September 8, 2010 - Liver defect likely cause of DHA deficiency in Alzheimer's patients
  4. September 8, 2010 - Compounds fend off Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology
  5. September 8, 2010 - New Alzheimer's approach may sidestep early snags
  6. September 9, 2010 - Vitamin B could delay onset of Alzheimer's: study
  7. September 9, 2010 - Strategy discovered to prevent Alzheimer's-associated traffic jams in the brain
  8. September 10, 2010 - Function found for Alzheimer's protein
Background


MicroRNA and cancer

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Micro-RNA determines malignancy of lung cancer
Background, Background


Insulin and septicemia

References:
  1. September 8, 2010 - Insulin may reduce several inflammatory factors induced by bacterial infection
Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - Yeast holds clues to Parkinson's disease
Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. September 9, 2010 - New dual recognition mechanism discovered in tuberculosis
  2. September 9, 2010 - How mycobacteria avoid destruction inside human cells
Background


Influenza transmission

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Dry air might boost flu transmission
Background


Antioxidants

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Study finds that sorghum bran has more antioxidants than blueberries, pomegranates
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. September 10, 2010 - Breastfeeding for a month cuts mom's diabetes risk
Background


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with heteroresistance

References:
  1. September 12, 2010 - hVISA linked to high mortality: study
Background


Copyright © 2010 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved