Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 8, Number 34
August 24, 2009

Physical sciences and technology

Nanotechnology
Nanoelectronics
Cometary glycine
Quantum theory
Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer
Organic electronics
Earthquakes
Quantum gravity
Global warming
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer
Spurious explanation of dark energy
Planet formation
Black holes and gamma-ray bursts
Gamma-ray pulsars
Black holes
Virtual reality
Archean atmosphere
Quantum dots
Inflation and gravitational waves
Sunspots
Superconductivity
Star size distribution
Earth's mantle
National Ignition Facility
Star formation
Macroscopic quantum effects
Superfluids and Mott insulators
Paleoclimatology
Spiral galaxies
Supercomputers
Hydrocarbons on Titan
Metamaterials
M87's black hole

Life sciences

Bacterial shape shifting
DNA methylation test
Acetylation
MicroRNA
Mitosis
Wnt and lung development
Vitamin-D mediated immune response
Nuclear pore complex
Nucleosomes and exons
Bioinformatics
Origins of gram-negative bacteria
Ediacara organisms
Glucocorticoid hormones and gene activity
Commensal bacteria and immune response
Protein shape-shifting and drug interaction
Modeling complex biological and physical systems
Bacterial genetic engineering
Ribosomes
Cellular fusion
Transposons and antibiotic resistance
Nanog and pluripotency
Sexual selection
Brown adipose tissue
Cellular adaptive response
Messenger RNA decay

Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior

Emotions and uncertainty
Auditory processing in the presence of noise
Short- and long-term memory
MECP2 and brain structure
Brain-imaging studies
Exercise addiction
Corticotrophin releasing factor and alcoholism
Face recognition
Bilingualism
Tone deafness
Neural activity and obesity in fruit flies
Biological function of sleep
Rivalry in the olfactory system

Health and medicine

Multiple sclerosis
Cancer
Cancer biology
Stem cells
Protein interaction interference drugs
Nanobiotechnology
Hepatitis C
Alzheimer's disease
Malaria
Cancer stem cells
Tuberculosis
Tissue engineering
Asthma
Polyphenol sources
Cardiovascular disease
Modeling epidemics
Klotho and hypertension
Protein-polymer conjugates
Parkinson's disease
MicroRNA and cancer
Progesterone, inflammation, and cancer
Antioxidants, metabolism of matrix-detached cells, and cancer
Inflammatory bowel disease
Oxycholesterol
Antibiotics
Diabetes
Fitness and longevity
Prions
MCAT and longevity
Obesity and dementia



Physical sciences and technology


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Chemist creates trapping technique for nanoparticles
  2. August 17, 2009 - Tiny robots get a grip on nanotubes - also here
  3. August 19, 2009 - A safe approach to nanotechnology: Boiling up zinc oxide nanorods without toxic solvents
  4. August 19, 2009 - Bio-enabled, surface-mediated approach produces nanoparticle composites - also here
Background


Nanoelectronics

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - IBM uses DNA to make next-gen microchips
  2. August 17, 2009 - New material for nanoscale computer chips
  3. August 17, 2009 - DNA 'organises itself' on silicon
  4. August 18, 2009 - Scientists Use DNA Scaffolding To Build Tiny Circuit Boards - also here
  5. August 18, 2009 - Nuclear fusion research key to advancing computer chips - also here
  6. August 18, 2009 - DNA could become building blocks of smaller, more powerful microchips
  7. August 21, 2009 - DNA scaffolds could make nano-circuits
Background, Background


Cometary glycine

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Comet Contains One of Life's Precursors
  2. August 17, 2009 - First discovery of life's building block in comet made - also here
  3. August 17, 2009 - Life's Building Block Found in Comet
  4. August 17, 2009 - Found: first amino acid on a comet
  5. August 18, 2009 - Building block of life found on comet
  6. August 18, 2009 - Comet dust harbors life's building blocks
  7. August 18, 2009 - 'Life chemical' detected in comet
  8. August 18, 2009 - Life-giving compound found in space
  9. August 19, 2009 - Comet holds building block of life
Background


Quantum theory

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - New Law of Physics Could Explain Quantum Mysteries
Background


Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - In Search of Antimatter Galaxies
Background, Background, Background


Organic electronics

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Organic electronics a two-way street, thanks to new plastic semiconductor - also here
Background


Earthquakes

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Listening to rocks helps researchers better understand earthquakes - also here
  2. August 21, 2009 - Ocean-drilling Expedition Cites New Evidence Related To Origin And Evolution Of Seismogenic Faults
Background


Quantum gravity

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Old methods lead to a new approach to finding a quantum theory of gravity - also here
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Analysis shows climate change to yield more extreme rainfall
  2. August 17, 2009 - As Arctic Ocean warms, megatonnes of methane bubble up
  3. August 18, 2009 - Methane seeps from Arctic sea-bed
  4. August 19, 2009 - Those dog days of August: 3 times the heat by 2050?
  5. August 20, 2009 - Global warming could change Earth's tilt
  6. August 20, 2009 - In hot water: World sets ocean temperature record
Background


Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - NASA's WISE Mission Arrives at Launch Site
Background


Spurious explanation of dark energy

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - 'Big Wave' Theory Offers Alternative to Dark Energy
  2. August 18, 2009 - Dark Energy's Demise? New Theory Doesn't Use the Force
Background


Planet formation

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Did asteroids flock together to build planets?
  2. August 21, 2009 - Making Jupiters
Background


Black holes and gamma-ray bursts

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Black hole parasites explain cosmic flashes
  2. September 22, 2009 - Radical New Theory: Black Holes Attack and Devour Stars from the Inside
Background, Background


Gamma-ray pulsars

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Fermi Tracks Gamma-ray Pulsars
Background


Black holes

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - The Edge of a Black Hole
Background


Virtual reality

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Modified HDTV screens used for 3-D technology
Background


Archean atmosphere

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - The greenhouse gas that saved the world - also here
Background


Quantum dots

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Confined electrons live longer - also here
Background


Inflation and gravitational waves

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - LIGO Listens for Gravitational Echoes of the Birth of the Universe
  2. August 19, 2009 - New Limits on the Big Bang
  3. August 19, 2009 - Gravity waves 'around the corner'
  4. August 19, 2009 - Lack of Gravity Waves Puts Limits on Exotic Cosmology Theories
  5. August 19, 2009 - Listening for Gravitational Echoes of the Universe's Birth - also here
  6. August 19, 2009 - Gravitational wave detectors home in on their quarry
  7. August 20, 2009 - Gravitational waves project yields first results
  8. August 21, 2009 - 'Nondiscovery' creates media ripple
  9. August 26, 2008 - Listening for Gravity Waves, Silence Becomes Meaningful
Background, Background


Sunspots

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Long-standing sunspot puzzle solved
Background


Superconductivity

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Research pokes holes in Hubbard model: Could help solve enigma of high-temperature superconductors - also here
Background


Star size distribution

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Galaxies Demand a Stellar Recount - also here
Background, Background


Earth's mantle

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Water in Earth's mantle may be associated with subduction
  2. August 20, 2009 - Scientists Create First Three-dimensional Global Map Of Electrical Conductivity In Earth's Mantle
Background


National Ignition Facility

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Toward limitless energy: National Ignition Facility focus of ACS symposium - also here
Background


Star formation

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Stars Born in Violent Cosmic Cradle
  2. August 21, 2009 - Big Squeeze Creates New Stars in Cosmic Cloud
Background


Macroscopic quantum effects

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Seeing quantum effects on a big scale
Background


Superfluids and Mott insulators

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - 'Wedding Cake' Images Display Transitions between Exotic Quantum States
Background


Paleoclimatology

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Shark Teeth Provide Key To North Sea's Climatic Past - also here
Background


Spiral galaxies

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Where Did You Get Those Lovely Spirals?
Background


Supercomputers

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Cystorm supercomputer unleashes 28.16 trillion calculations per second - also here
Background


Hydrocarbons on Titan

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Saturn moon's mirror-smooth lake 'good for skipping rocks'
Background


Metamaterials

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Metamaterials learn to remember
Background


M87's black hole

References:
  1. August 23, 2009 - Mega black hole twice as big as we thought
Background



Life sciences


Bacterial shape shifting

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Flat bacteria in nanoslits - also here
Background


DNA methylation test

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - New DNA test uses nanotechnology to find early signs of cancer - also here
Background, Background, Background


Acetylation

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - From cell division to ageing: Scientists locate main cell switches
Background


MicroRNA

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - To contract or not to contract: Decision controlled by 2 microRNAs - also here
Background


Mitosis

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Newly discovered mechanism in cell division has implications for chromosome's role in cancer - also here
Background


Wnt and lung development

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Cell-regeneration molecules essential signals for early lung development - also here
Background


Vitamin-D mediated immune response

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Key feature of immune system survived in humans, other primates for 60 million years - also here
Background


Nuclear pore complex

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - New research supports model for nuclear pore complex - also here
  2. August 19, 2009 - Solving the Nuclear Pore Puzzle
Background


Nucleosomes and exons

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Evolutionarily preserved mechanism governs use of genes - also here
Background


Bioinformatics

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Two software tools that improve identification of cancer biomarkers earn certification - also here
Background


Ediacara organisms

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Bizarre Fossil Organisms Likely Absorbed Nutrients through Their Skin
  2. August 19, 2009 - Geobiologists propose that the earliest complex organisms fed by absorbing ocean buffet - also here
Background


Origins of gram-negative bacteria

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Early Life Didn't Just Divide, It United
  2. August 19, 2009 - Major insights into evolution of life reported - also here
Background, Background


Glucocorticoid hormones and gene activity

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Hormones found to affect gene activity
Background


Commensal bacteria and immune response

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Friendly gut bacteria lend a hand to fight infection, study suggests - also here
Background


Protein shape-shifting and drug interaction

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Intrinsic changes in protein shape influence drug binding - also here
Background


Modeling complex biological and physical systems

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - New initiative to develop modeling tools for disease and complex systems
Background


Bacterial genetic engineering

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Gene swap experiment makes altering bugs easier
  2. August 20, 2009 - Building better bacteria
  3. August 20, 2009 - Scientists devise new way to modify organisms
  4. August 20, 2009 - A step closer to 'synthetic life'
  5. August 20, 2009 - Genome smuggling is step towards synthetic life
  6. August 22, 2009 - Artificial Life One Step Closer: Scientists Clone And Engineer Bacterial Genomes In Yeast And Transplant Genomes Back Into Bacterial Cells - also here
  7. August 24, 2009 - Gene swap experiment makes altering bugs easier
Background


Ribosomes

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - New images capture cell's ribosomes at work, could aid in molecular war against disease - also here
Background


Cellular fusion

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - A new 'bent' on fusion - also here
Background


Transposons and antibiotic resistance

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - 'Jumping genes' create antibiotic resistance in bacteria
Background, Background


Nanog and pluripotency

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - New insight into how stems cells develop into other types of cells - also here
Background, Background


Sexual selection

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Should females trust showy males?
  2. August 21, 2009 - Females 'distrust flashy males'
Background


Brown adipose tissue

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Daylight could help control our weight - also here
Background


Cellular adaptive response

References:
  1. August 22, 2009 - Researchers identify 2 key pathways in adaptive response - also here
Background


Messenger RNA decay

References:
  1. August 23, 2009 - Researchers demonstrate that messenger RNA are lost in translation - also here
Background, Background



Neuroscience, psychology, and behavior


Emotions and uncertainty

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Brain scans show uncertainty fuels anxiety - also here
Background, Background


Auditory processing in the presence of noise

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Taking up music so you can hear
Background


Short- and long-term memory

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Study finds short- and long-term memories require same gene but in different circuits - also here
Background


MECP2 and brain structure

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Common variation in gene linked to structural changes in the brain - also here
  2. August 20, 2009 - Genetic Variations Linked To Brain Size
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Researchers find genetic link between physical pain and social rejection - also here
Background


Exercise addiction

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Excessive exercise can be addicting, new study says - also here
  2. August 20, 2009 - Exercise Can Be Like Heroin, "Gym Rats" Show
Background


Corticotrophin releasing factor and alcoholism

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Monkeys booze because of genes
Background


Face recognition

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Kids ID each other better than adults
Background


Bilingualism

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Study shows bilinguals are unable to 'turn off' a language completely - also here
Background


Tone deafness

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Neural pathway missing in tone-deaf people - also here
  2. August 22, 2009 - Tone-deaf people have fewer brain connections
Background


Neural activity and obesity in fruit flies

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Researchers pinpoint neurons that control obesity in fruit flies - also here
Background


Biological function of sleep

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Why sleep? Scientist delves into one of science's great mysteries - also here
Background


Rivalry in the olfactory system

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Battle of the nostrils?
Background



Health and medicine


Multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Blood pressure drug reverses MS symptoms in mice
  2. August 17, 2009 - Inexpensive hypertension drug could be multiple sclerosis treatment - also here
  3. August 17, 2009 - Smoking linked to increased brain lesions and brain shrinkage in MS
  4. August 18, 2009 - MS Patients Who Smoke Show More Brain Atrophy, More Lesions, Than MS Nonsmokers
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Study supports DNA repair-blocker research in cancer therapy - also here
  2. August 17, 2009 - Research points to new target for stopping colon cancer - also here
  3. August 17, 2009 - Antioxidants not associated with increased melanoma risk - also here
  4. August 17, 2009 - Dermatologist skin examinations detect more, thinner skin cancers than patients identify themselves - also here
  5. August 17, 2009 - Post-treatment pain in head and neck cancer patients linked to recurrence, lower survival rate - also here
  6. August 18, 2009 - Low-dose estrogen may help if breast cancer recurs
  7. August 18, 2009 - Digital mammography finds more breast cancers
  8. August 18, 2009 - Tall men at risk of early prostate cancer
  9. August 18, 2009 - Using estrogen to combat persistent breast cancer
  10. August 18, 2009 - Fine-tuning an anti-cancer drug - also here
  11. August 18, 2009 - Researchers identify key factor that stimulates brain cancer cells to spread - also here
  12. August 18, 2009 - Low-dose estrogen shown safe and effective for metastatic breast cancer - also here
  13. August 18, 2009 - Study backs Roche's new use of Avastin cancer drug
  14. August 19, 2009 - Cannabis chemicals may help fight prostate cancer
  15. August 19, 2009 - Tests help lung cancer drugs reach right patients
  16. August 19, 2009 - Drug sequence does not up breast cancer survival
  17. August 19, 2009 - New robot-assisted surgical method found successful for treatment of thyroid cancer - also here
  18. August 19, 2009 - Tumor size and level of visceral pleura invasion can impact survival of NSCLC patients - also here
  19. August 19, 2009 - Kinetic variable most useful for identifying malignant MRI-detected breast lesions identified - also here
  20. August 19, 2009 - Primary liver cancers 'soaring'
  21. August 19, 2009 - Study: Lung cancer pill works for some patients
  22. August 20, 2009 - Cancer vaccine for clinical use made
  23. August 20, 2009 - Lung cancer genetics unravelled
  24. August 21, 2009 - Daily drinking may raise risk of several cancers
  25. August 21, 2009 - Fecal DNA methylation detects gastric and colorectal cancers - also here
  26. August 21, 2009 - Robot's gentle touch aids delicate cancer surgery - also here
  27. August 21, 2009 - High serum insulin levels and risk of prostate cancer - also here
  28. August 21, 2009 - New treatments offer better survival and fresh challenges in colorectal cancer - also here
  29. August 23, 2009 - How diarrheal bacteria cause some colon cancers revealed in mouse studies - also here
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Does sugar feed cancer? - also here
  2. August 17, 2009 - Cancer's break-in tools possibly identified - also here
  3. August 17, 2009 - Prion protein identified as a novel early pancreatic cancer biomarker - also here
  4. August 17, 2009 - Metastatic Cancer And Macrophages: Cells Thought To Protect Against Cancer May Actually Promote It
  5. August 19, 2009 - Cancer cells don't need a map to travel
  6. August 20, 2009 - The ends of mRNAs may prevent the beginnings of cancer - also here
  7. August 20, 2009 - Disrupting a destructive duo: Researchers inhibit cancer proteins - also here
  8. August 23, 2009 - Some brain tumors may be mediated by tiny filament on cells - also here
  9. August 23, 2009 - Some skin cancer may be mediated by primary cilia activity - also here
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Nanomagnets guide stem cells to damaged tissue - also here
  2. August 17, 2009 - 'Magnetic' stem cells for hearts
  3. August 19, 2009 - Watching stem cells repair the human brain - also here
  4. August 20, 2009 - 'Housekeeping' genes play important role in developmental pathways of cells - also here
  5. August 20, 2009 - Human stem cell trial on hold
  6. August 24, 2009 - Stem cell researchers see red
  7. August 24, 2009 - 'Glow-in-the-dark' red blood cells made from human stem cells - also here
Background


Protein interaction interference drugs

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Engineered protein-like molecule protects cells against HIV infection - also here
Background, Background


Nanobiotechnology

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Harnessing carbon nanomaterials for drug delivery systems, oxygen sensors - also here
  2. August 19, 2009 - DNA-Coated Nanotubes Help Kill Tumors Without Harm to Surrounding Tissue - also here
  3. August 19, 2009 - Scientists develop targeted cancer treatment using nanomaterials - also here
Background


Hepatitis C

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Hepatitis C virus channels efforts into cell survival - also here
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Study shows how to boost value of Alzheimer's-fighting compounds - also here
  2. August 20, 2009 - Neural networks mapped in dementia patients - also here
  3. August 26, 2008 - Many degrees of separation in dementia brains
Background


Malaria

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Naturally occurring protection against severe malaria - also here
  2. August 21, 2009 - New discovery points the way towards malaria 'vaccine' - also here
Background


Cancer stem cells

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Gene vital to brain's stem cells implicated in deadly brain cancer - also here
Background, Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Tuberculosis treatment may be shortened
Background


Tissue engineering

References:
  1. August 17, 2009 - Researcher says microchannels could advance tissue engineering methods - also here
  2. August 20, 2009 - Muscular blob shows new direction for tissue engineering
Background


Asthma

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Sad, stressful events may worsen kids' asthma - also here
  2. August 19, 2009 - Experts question study's asthma drug safety claim
Background


Polyphenol sources

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Whole grain cereals, popcorn rich in antioxidants, not just fiber: study - also here
Background


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Scientists help explain effects of ancient Chinese herbal formulas on heart health - also here
  2. August 20, 2009 - Diabetes drug linked to increased risk of heart failure
  3. August 20, 2009 - Increase in visceral fat during menopause linked with testosterone - also here
  4. August 20, 2009 - Smokeless tobacco increases risk of heart attack and stroke - also here
  5. August 21, 2009 - New research sheds light on sudden death in people with high cholesterol - also here
  6. August 22, 2009 - Research shows why low vitamin D raises heart disease risks in diabetics - also here
  7. August 25, 2009 - Vitamin D may be heart protective
Background


Modeling epidemics

References:
  1. August 18, 2009 - Science ponders 'zombie attack'
Background


Klotho and hypertension

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Anti-aging gene linked to high blood pressure - also here
Background


Protein-polymer conjugates

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Novel polymer could improve protein-based drugs - also here
Background, Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Parkinson's disease: Iron accumulation to the point of demise - also here
Background


MicroRNA and cancer

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Researchers discover new targets for treatment of invasive breast cancer - also here
Background, Background


Progesterone, inflammation, and cancer

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Study: Progesterone leads to inflammation - also here
Background, Background


Antioxidants, metabolism of matrix-detached cells, and cancer

References:
  1. August 19, 2009 - Antioxidants Encourage Cancer in Some Cases, Study Says
  2. August 19, 2009 - Antioxidants help cancer cells?
  3. August 20, 2009 - Antioxidants could give cancer a hand
  4. August 19, 2009 - New metabolic safeguards against tumor cells revealed - also here
Background, Background


Inflammatory bowel disease

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Scientists make "sugar bug" drug for bowel disease - also here
  2. August 20, 2009 - Genetically engineered bacteria are sweet success against IBD - also here
Background


Oxycholesterol

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Little known type of cholesterol may pose the greatest heart disease risk - also here
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Scientists learn why some drugs pack such a punch - also here
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. August 20, 2009 - Type 1 diabetes linked to immune response to wheat - also here
Background


Fitness and longevity

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Even modest fitness may extend lifespan
Background


Prions

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Impaired transport in neurons triggers prion disease - also here
Background


MCAT and longevity

References:
  1. August 21, 2009 - Living Longer And Happier
Background


Obesity and dementia

References:
  1. August 23, 2009 - Expanding waistlines may cause shrinking brains
Background, Background, Background


Copyright © 2009 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved