Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 7, Number 26
June 30, 2008

Physical sciences and technology

Robotics
Seyfert galaxies
Quantum image storage
Primordial dark matter stars
Brain-machines interfaces
Nanotechnology
No-boundary cosmology
Extrasolar planets
Galaxy distribution
Spintronics
Superconductivity
Water on Mars
Fuel cells
Global warming
Lab-on-a-chip
Photonic crystals
Carbon nanotubes
Extragalactic background light
Quantum computing
Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope
Plasmonics and terahertz technology

Life sciences

Brain cell communication breakdown
Turritopsis dohrnii rejuvenation
Neanderthals
Epigenetic changes to DNA over lifespan
Cancer biology
Language and personality
Brain-imaging studies
Tetrapod evolution
Speciation
Neutrophils and inflammation
Mitochondria and tRNA
Activity of Ritalin in the brain
Extremophiles
Transport of virus DNA into cells
Hedgehog signaling
MicroRNA and viruses
Grid computing for cancer research
Modeling morphogenes and early embryonic development
Embryonic stem cells
FGF21 'starvation' hormone
Paramutagenic alleles

Health and medicine

Cardiovascular disease
Anti-inflammatories
Autism
Stem cells
Cancer
Gene therapy
Drug delivery
Alzheimer's disease
Multiple sclerosis
Diabetes
Hepatitis B
AIDS
Modeling brain and immune system function
Prions
Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids
Antibiotics
Vaccines using artificial viruses
Dementia
Inflammatory bowel disease
Obesity
Nanobiotechnology
Sleep and aging
Avian flu



Physical sciences and technology


Robotics

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Tartalo The Robot Is Knocking On Your Door
Background


Seyfert galaxies

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism - also here, here
  2. June 23, 2008 - Collisions Fuel Black Hole Feeding Frenzies
Background, Background, Background


Quantum image storage

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Physicists Store Images in Vapor
Background, Background


Primordial dark matter stars

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - 'Frozen' stars could shed light on dark matter
Background, Background, Background


Brain-machines interfaces

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Neural Implant That Learns With The Brain May Help Paralyzed Patients - also here
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Building Giant 'Nanoassemblies' That Sense Their Environment
  2. June 25, 2008 - New Process Creates 3-D Nanostructures with Magnetic Materials - also here
  3. June 26, 2008 - Tethered Molecules Act As Light-driven Reversible Nanoswitches - also here, here
  4. June 26, 2008 - Researchers develop new technique for fabricating nanowire circuits
  5. June 26, 2008 - New nano technique significantly boosts boiling efficiency
  6. June 29, 2008 - In 'Novel Playground,' Metals Self-assemble Into Porous Nanostructures - also here, here
  7. July 4, 2008 - Hot rods make boiling better
Background


No-boundary cosmology

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - How did the universe begin?
Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Astronomers on Verge of Finding Earth's Twin
Background


Galaxy distribution

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Galaxy map hints at fractal universe
Background


Spintronics

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Accidental Discovery Could Enable Development Of Faster Computers - also here
Background


Superconductivity

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Physicists Develop 'Impossible' Technique To Study And Develop Superconductors - also here, here
Background


Water on Mars

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Mars Air Once Had Moisture, New Soil Analysis Says - also here
  2. June 25, 2008 - Study: Mars Had Drizzle and Dew
  3. June 26, 2008 - Martian soil appears able to support life
  4. June 26, 2008 - First analysis of Red Planet dirt shows what may be some of the 'requirements for life'
  5. June 26, 2008 - Martian soil could grow turnips, Phoenix finds
  6. June 26, 2008 - Mars Soil Resembles Veggie-Garden Dirt, Lander Finds
  7. June 26, 2008 - Mars OK for Life, So Far
  8. June 26, 2008 - Minerals Needed for Life Found on Mars
  9. June 26, 2008 - Martian Soil Fit for Earthly Life
  10. June 26, 2008 - Martian soil good enough for asparagus: NASA
  11. June 26, 2008 - Mars Lander Finds Salty Environment in Taste Test - also here
  12. June 27, 2008 - Phoenix Mars Lander Returns Treasure Trove For Science - also here
  13. June 27, 2008 - Martian Dirt is Friendly to Life
  14. June 27, 2008 - Martian soil 'could support life'
  15. July 2, 2008 - Rain on the Martian Plain?
Background


Fuel cells

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Oxygen Ions for Fuel Cells Get Loose at Low Temperatures
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - New pieces in the climate-change puzzle
  2. June 25, 2008 - Rising seas threaten west Antarctic
  3. June 26, 2008 - Tropical ocean sucks up vast amounts of ozone
  4. June 26, 2008 - North Pole Could be Ice-Free This Summer
  5. June 27, 2008 - This summer may see first ice-free North Pole
  6. June 27, 2008 - Arctic's First Ice-Free Summer Possible Even This Year
  7. June 30, 2008 - North Pole may have no ice this summer
Background


Lab-on-a-chip

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Automated Microfluidic Device Reduces Time To Screen Small Organisms For Genetic Studies
Background


Photonic crystals

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Silicon Photonic Crystals Key To Optical Cloaking, Researchers Say - also here, here
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Researchers peer into water in carbon nanotubes - also here, here
Background


Extragalactic background light

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Gamma-rays put limit on universe's background light
  2. June 27, 2008 - Distant quasar helps to analyze light in universe
  3. June 27, 2008 - Very high energy gamma rays from a distant Quasar: How transparent is the Universe?
Background


Quantum computing

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - The Fight For The Best Quantum Bit - also here
  2. June 28, 2008 - Quantum Computing Breakthrough Arises From Unknown Molecule
Background


Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - NASA GLAST Burst Monitor Powers Up Successfully
Background


Plasmonics and terahertz technology

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - Chasing rainbows - also here
Background, Background



Life sciences


Brain cell communication breakdown

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Inside the brain, communication breakdown is a nervous breakdown
Background


Turritopsis dohrnii rejuvenation

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Hydrozoan with reversible life cycle now found worldwide
Background


Neanderthals

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Britain's Last Neanderthals Were More Sophisticated Than We Thought - also here, here
  2. June 23, 2008 - 'Neanderthal tools' found at dig
  3. June 23, 2008 - Neanderthals Were High-Tech For Their Era
Background


Epigenetic changes to DNA over lifespan

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Dynamic throughout life, epigenetic shifts also appear to run in families
  2. June 24, 2008 - Lifetime lessons of DNA change
  3. June 25, 2008 - Our Genome Changes Over Lifetime, And May Explain Many 'Late-onset' Diseases - also here, here
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Refusal Of Suicide Order: Why Tumor Cells Become Resistant - also here, here
  2. June 24, 2008 - Understanding The Migration Of Cancer Cells - also here, here
  3. June 25, 2008 - Crucial Factors In Lymphoma Development And Survival Discovered - also here, here
  4. June 26, 2008 - Multiple Regions Of Chromosome 8 Found To Be Associated With Different Cancers
  5. June 27, 2008 - Promising Cancer Drug Target In Prostate Tumors Identified
Background


Language and personality

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Switching languages can also switch personality: study
  2. June 25, 2008 - How switching language can change your personality
  3. June 26, 2008 - Are You A Different Person When You Speak A Different Language? - also here, here, here
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Brain scientists discover why adventure feels good
  2. June 25, 2008 - Brain's adventure centre located
  3. June 26, 2008 - Neuroscientists Discover A Sense Of Adventure - also here
  4. June 26, 2008 - Our Brains on Marketing: Scans Show Why We Like New Things
  5. June 29, 2008 - Happy thoughts may dampen cravings
Background


Tetrapod evolution

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Fossils yield insight into early tetrapod evolution
  2. June 25, 2008 - Fishy Ancestors of Humans Surprisingly Diverse
  3. June 25, 2008 - Fossil fills out water-land leap
  4. June 25, 2008 - Fish out of water: The evolutionary crawl from sea to land
  5. June 25, 2008 - Fossil of most primitive 4-legged creature found - also here
  6. June 26, 2008 - Fossil fish reveals complex evolution
  7. June 27, 2008 - New Fossils Of Extremely Primitive 4-Legged Creatures Close The Gap Between Fish And Land Animals - also here
Background


Speciation

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Estimation Of Isolation Times In The Drosophila Simulans Complex - also here, here
Background


Neutrophils and inflammation

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Immune Cells Cause Inflammation By Destroying An Anti-inflammatory Protein
Background, Background


Mitochondria and tRNA

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Newly Identified Role For 'Power Plants' In Human Cells Could Lead To Targeted Therapies - also here
Background


Activity of Ritalin in the brain

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - How Ritalin Works In Brain To Boost Cognition, Focus Attention - also here
  2. July 3, 2008 - Study uncovers how Ritalin works in the brain
Background


Extremophiles

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - New protein that repairs DNA under extreme conditions
  2. June 26, 2008 - The most extreme life-forms in the universe
Background


Transport of virus DNA into cells

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Viruses Hitch A Ride In The Cell - also here
Background


Hedgehog signaling

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Hedgehog Signaling In Heart's Blood Vessels
Background


MicroRNA and viruses

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - New Study Opening New Route For Combating Viruses - also here, here
Background, Background


Grid computing for cancer research

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Idle Computers Offer Hope To Solve Cancer's Mysteries Through Grid Computing Project - also here
Background, Background


Modeling morphogenes and early embryonic development

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - Scientists Discover How An Injured Embryo Can Regenerate Itself - also here, here
Background, Background


Embryonic stem cells

References:
  1. June 28, 2008 - Ronin An Alternate Control For Embryonic Stem Cells - also here
Background


FGF21 'starvation' hormone

References:
  1. June 28, 2008 - Starvation Hormone Makes For Small Mice, Study Finds - also here
  2. June 28, 2008 - Growth hormone's link to starvation may be clue to increasing life span - also here
Background


Paramutagenic alleles

References:
  1. June 29, 2008 - Genome Communication: Alleles Of Homologous Genes Can Silence One Another - also here
Background



Health and medicine


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Chest pain common a year after heart attack: study
  2. June 23, 2008 - Prevalence Of Chest Pain In Patients One Year After Heart Attack Reviewed - also here, here
  3. June 23, 2008 - Hypertension Treatment Effective In Reversing Vascular Damage, Study Suggests
  4. June 23, 2008 - Lack of sunshine vitamin may cloud survival odds
  5. June 23, 2008 - Study shows more benefits of sunshine vitamin
  6. June 24, 2008 - Subtle brain abnormalities predict mental decline: study
  7. June 24, 2008 - Simple doctor's exam may predict stroke risk: study
  8. June 24, 2008 - Internet-based care aids blood pressure control - also here
  9. June 24, 2008 - Subtle Nervous System Abnormalities Appear To Predict Risk Of Death In Older Individuals - also here, here
  10. June 24, 2008 - Low Vitamin D Levels Associated With Death From Cardiovascular, All Causes - also here, here
  11. June 25, 2008 - Coffee, tea may curb stroke risk in male smokers
  12. June 25, 2008 - High Levels Of Urinary Albumin In The Normal Range Predict Hypertension - also here
  13. June 25, 2008 - How Low Blood Flow Promotes Vascular Disease: Better Understanding To Lead To New Therapies - also here, here
  14. June 26, 2008 - Low-fat diet as heart-healthy as Mediterranean
  15. June 26, 2008 - One in 10 had "silent strokes" - U.S. group study
  16. June 26, 2008 - Silent strokes may occur in early middle age
  17. June 26, 2008 - Sudden hearing loss a harbinger of stroke
  18. June 26, 2008 - New Cardiovascular Score Developed To Improve Heart Attack And Stroke Detection - also here, here
  19. June 26, 2008 - Study suggests a little milk could go a long way for your heart - also here
  20. June 27, 2008 - Hard Work While Fatigued Affects Blood Pressure - also here
  21. June 27, 2008 - Hearing loss link to stroke risk
  22. June 28, 2008 - Sudden Hearing Loss Could Indicate Future Stroke - also here
  23. June 29, 2008 - 10 Percent Of Healthy People In Study Had Injury From 'Silent Strokes' - also here
Background


Anti-inflammatories

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Compound in marijuana reduces inflammation without the psychological effects
  2. June 24, 2008 - Marijuana Has Anti-Inflammatory That Won't Get You High
  3. June 25, 2008 - How An Anticancer Drug Dampens The Immune System
  4. June 26, 2008 - Oregano Helps Against Inflammations - also here
Background


Autism

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Drug Reverses Mental Retardation Caused By Genetic Disorder; Hope For Correcting How Autism Disrupts Brain
  2. June 25, 2008 - Existing Drug Reverses a Form of Mental Retardation in Mice
  3. June 27, 2008 - Low birth weight, prematurity may raise autism risk
  4. June 30, 2008 - Transplant drug may ease disorder linked to autism
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. June 23, 2008 - Stem Cells Correct Defect In Child's Fatal Skin Disease
  2. June 26, 2008 - Nerve Cells Derived From Stem Cells And Transplanted Into Mice May Lead To Improved Brain Treatments - also here, here
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Study suggests colon cancer vaccine possible
  2. June 24, 2008 - Cuba approves, makes available lung cancer vaccine
  3. June 24, 2008 - Roche says sugar technology has anticancer promise
  4. June 24, 2008 - Painkillers don't protect against melanoma
  5. June 24, 2008 - Activation Of LYN Kinase Is Associated With Imatinib-resistance In CML Patients - also here
  6. June 24, 2008 - Symptom Screening Plus A Simple Blood Test Improves Early Detection Of Ovarian Cancer - also here, here
  7. June 24, 2008 - Marine organisms could hold the secret to reducing cancer
  8. June 24, 2008 - Gene fuels deadly prostate cancer
  9. June 25, 2008 - Five Genes Identified In Metastasis Of Breast Tumors To The Lung - also here
  10. June 25, 2008 - Estrogen may protect against colorectal cancer
  11. June 25, 2008 - Overcoming Resistance To A Cancer Drug
  12. June 26, 2008 - MRI combo spots prostate cancer treatment failure
  13. June 26, 2008 - New Clinical Trial For Patients With Asbestos-associated Lung Cancer - also here, here
  14. June 26, 2008 - Different Type Of Colon Cancer Vaccine Reduces Disease Spread, Scientists Show - also here, here
  15. June 26, 2008 - Intestinal Proteins May Be Effective Anti-Tumor Antigens
  16. June 26, 2008 - Ovarian Cancer's Specific Scent Detected By Dogs - also here
  17. June 26, 2008 - NSAID Use Not Associated With Reduction In Melanoma Risk
  18. June 26, 2008 - Elevated biomarkers predict risk for prostate cancer recurrence - also here
  19. June 26, 2008 - Effectiveness Of Contrast Agent Cytate In Detecting Prostate Cancer - also here
  20. June 26, 2008 - Cancer gene test 'for all women'
  21. June 26, 2008 - Gene test gives early alert for breast cancer
  22. June 27, 2008 - Obesity may interfere with prostate cancer screen
  23. June 27, 2008 - Identification Of A Tumor Suppressor Gene Associated With Patient Outcome In Neuroblastoma
  24. June 27, 2008 - Faulty DNA Repair Could Be A Risk Factor For Lung Cancer In Nonsmokers - also here, here
  25. June 27, 2008 - Pregnancy May Help Protect Against Bladder Cancer - also here, here
  26. June 27, 2008 - Promising Cancer Drug Target In Prostate Tumors Identified - also here, here
  27. June 27, 2008 - Higher Coffee Consumption Associated With Lower Liver Cancer Risk - also here
  28. June 27, 2008 - Researchers overcome chemotherapy resistance in the lab - also here
  29. June 27, 2008 - First pharmaceutical drug to improve survival amongst patients with advanced hepatocarcinoma - also here
  30. June 28, 2008 - Blue Light Used To Harden Tooth Fillings Stunts Tumor Growth - also here, here
  31. June 29, 2008 - Accidental fungus leads to promising cancer drug
  32. June 29, 2008 - Cancer 'cure' in mice to be tested in humans - also here, here
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - New Paradigm For Cell-specific Gene Delivery - also here, here
  2. June 27, 2008 - New Research May Lead To Safer, More Effective Gene Therapy - also here
Background


Drug delivery

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Cells Have An Appetite For Micro-doughnuts
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Neurological Assessment Of Older Adults: A Crystal Ball To The Future - also here, here
  2. June 25, 2008 - Anti-inflammatory Drug Blocks Brain Plaques - also here, here
  3. June 25, 2008 - Alzheimer's Disease As Case Of Brake Failure? Loss Of Protein Function In Neurons May Lead To Dementia - also here, here
  4. June 25, 2008 - Automated MRI Technique Assists In Earlier Alzheimer's Diagnosis - also here, here
  5. June 25, 2008 - Scientists identify possible Alzheimer's gene
  6. June 26, 2008 - Laser headband brings Alzheimer's out of the shadows
  7. June 26, 2008 - Second Genetic Risk Factor For Late-onset Alzheimer's Disease Found - also here
  8. June 26, 2008 - Genetic mutation can raise Alzheimer's risk
  9. June 27, 2008 - Toxic Key To Alzheimer's Disease Memory Loss Identified - also here
  10. June 27, 2008 - Mechanism Explains Calcium Abnormalities In Alzheimer's Brain - also here
  11. June 29, 2008 - Facebook Concepts Indicate Brains Of Alzheimer's Patients Aren't As Networked, Study Shows - also here
  12. June 29, 2008 - The Good And The Bad Of A Potential Alzheimer's Target - also here, here
Background


Multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. June 24, 2008 - Hopkins reports success with MS treatment
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Diabetes vaccine shows promise in mice: study
  2. June 27, 2008 - Diabetes linked to cognitive decline in seniors
  3. June 27, 2008 - Seniors With Type 2 Diabetes May Experience Memory Declines Immediately After Eating Unhealthy Meal - also here, here
Background


Hepatitis B

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - NICE backs Bristol-Myers drug for hepatitis B
  2. June 28, 2008 - Safer, More Efficient Medication For Hepatitis B Treatment Found - also here
Background


AIDS

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Revising HIV's History
Background


Modeling brain and immune system function

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Researchers To Simulate And Analyze Brain, Immune System Activity And Apply Math To Medical Problems - also here
Background, Background


Prions

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Prions Are Not Degraded By Conventional Sewage Treatment Processes
  2. July 1, 2008 - Prions' great escape
Background


Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Potential Role Of Fish-based Fatty Acids In Resolving, Preventing Asthma
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. June 25, 2008 - Protein discovery may bolster antibiotic development
Background


Vaccines using artificial viruses

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - New method could find vaccinations by creating wimpy versions of real viruses
  2. June 28, 2008 - Fake virus could make safe new vaccines
  3. June 29, 2008 - Customized 'Wimpy' Polioviruses Designed: A New Path To Vaccines?
Background


Dementia

References:
  1. June 26, 2008 - Low childhood IQ linked to type of dementia
Background


Inflammatory bowel disease

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - Hypnosis may ease inflammation in colitis
  2. June 29, 2008 - Big haul of Crohn's genes shows disease complexity
  3. June 29, 2008 - Complexity of Crohn's disease revealed as 'gene' count tops 30 - also here, here
  4. June 30, 2008 - International team identifies 21 new genetic risk factors for Crohn's disease
Background


Obesity

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - Death risk climbs as waist circumference grows
Background


Nanobiotechnology

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - Gene Silencer And Quantum Dots Reduce Protein Production To A Whisper - also here
Background


Sleep and aging

References:
  1. June 27, 2008 - Animal study suggests inadequate sleep may exacerbate cellular aging in the elderly - also here, here
Background, Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. June 28, 2008 - Bird flu 'still a major threat'
Background


Copyright © 2008 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved