Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 5, Number 52
December 25, 2006

Physical sciences and technology

Cosmic infrared background
Galaxy evolution
Planetary nebulae
Alternative theories of gravity
Lab-on-a-chip
Global warming
Nanotechnology
The quantum spin Hall state
Multiple star systems
Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays
Gamma-ray bursts
Planets of red dwarfs
Extrasolar planets
Network data transfer speed record
Carbon nanotubes
White dwarfs
Strange matter stars
Distribution of earliest stars
Optical buffers
Ancient climate change and orbital rhythms
Grid computing
Black holes

Life sciences

Cloning
Creativity
Evolutionary origin of oogamy
Evolution of iguanas
Neural stem cells and aging
Enhancement of memory in animal dreams
Brain-imaging studies
Human-chimp genome differences
Brain Atlases
How Francisella tularensis evades the immune system
Microinversions and phylogenetic trees
Deinococcus radiodurans
Parthenogenesis in komodo dragons
Cancer biology
Attention and brain activity
Crosstalk in gene regulation
Aging
Silent mutations
Chloroplasts and endosymbiosis
Mechanism of Toxoplasma infection
Evolutionary adaptation
Spindle neurons
Variability in use of neurotransmitters
Immunoglobulin G
Archaea
Neanderthals
Iron regulatory protein
Evolution of giraffe necks

Health and medicine

Cancer
Nanoparticles for cancer imaging
Malaria
AIDS
Genes, gender, and blood pressures
Parkinson's disease
Obesity and intestinal bacteria
Alzheimer's disease
Avian flu
Stem cells
Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis
Atherosclerosis and gene expression
Diabetes
Antibiotics
Stem cell therapy for cancer
Tuberculosis


Cosmic infrared background

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Universe's Oldest Objects Emerge from the Background - also here, here, here
  2. December 18, 2006 - Universe's First Objects Possibly Seen - also here, here, here
  3. December 18, 2006 - NASA Telescope Picks Up Glow of Universe's First Objects - also here, here, here, here, here
  4. December 19, 2006 - Earliest starlight detection disputed
  5. December 19, 2006 - Scientists may have found Big Bang remnant
  6. December 21, 2006 - Earliest cosmic fireworks could be stars - also here
Background


Galaxy evolution

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Nature vs. Nurture Debate is Universal
  2. December 31, 2006 - Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?
Background


Planetary nebulae

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Cosmos shines light on missing matter
Background


Alternative theories of gravity

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Cosmic structure explained without dark matter
Background, Background


Lab-on-a-chip

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Steering Toward The Much-discussed Lab-on-a-chip
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Spain set for warmest year on record
  2. December 21, 2006 - Glaciers Adding More To Global Sea Rise Than Ice Sheets
  3. December 22, 2006 - Indian, Chinese Team to Map Glacier Melt
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - World's strongest nanowire
  2. December 19, 2006 - First Nano-Welds Herald New Era of Electronics
Background


The quantum spin Hall state

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Researchers Predict A New State Of Matter In Semiconductors
Background, Background


Multiple star systems

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Cosmic Gatherings: How Stars Get Hitched
Background


Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Tiny dip could point to cosmic-ray origins
Background


Gamma-ray bursts

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Hybrids in the Universe?
  2. December 20, 2006 - 'Black sheep' gamma-ray bursts refuse to conform
  3. December 20, 2006 - Odd Gamma-Ray Burst Points to New Form of Stellar Suicide
  4. December 20, 2006 - New Kind Of Black Hole Explosion Discovered
  5. December 20, 2006 - Instead of a Big Bang, Some Stars Fade Quietly
  6. December 21, 2006 - Stars meet a darker death
  7. December 21, 2006 - Two cosmic bursts upset tidy association between long gamma-ray bursts and supernovae
  8. December 21, 2006 - Astronomers discover new kind of black-hole explosion - also here
  9. December 24, 2006 - New Type Of Massive Stellar Death
  10. December 28, 2006 - New Way To Form Black Hole Uncovered
Background


Planets of red dwarfs

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Life with a Red Dwarf
Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - European Spacecraft To Detect Exoplanets Orbiting Around Other Stars And Probe Mysteries Of Stellar Interiors - also here
  2. December 21, 2006 - COROT space mission ready to search out new planets and map the interior of stars
  3. December 22, 2006 - COROT to scout for rocky planets around other stars
Background


Network data transfer speed record

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Siemens says sets network speed record
  2. December 20, 2006 - Researchers achieve transmission rates of 107 Gbits per second over a single fiber channel
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - Nanotube coating promises ice-free windscreens
Background


White dwarfs

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - White dwarf shreds and vaporises asteroid
  2. December 21, 2006 - Dying Star May Presage Our Solar System's Demise
  3. December 22, 2006 - White Dwarf Hints at Our Solar System's End
Background


Strange matter stars

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - Stars Can Be Strange: Physicists Explore Strange Matter Hypothesis - also here
Background, Background


Distribution of earliest stars

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - With Computers, Astronomers Show Predicted Present Day Distribution Of Elusive First Stars
Background


Optical buffers

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Photons trapped by trick of the light
Background


Ancient climate change and orbital rhythms

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Earth's Climate Changes in Tune with Eccentric Orbital Rhythms
  2. December 22, 2006 - Researchers Identify A 'Heartbeat' In Earth's Climate
Background


Neanderthals

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - European Neanderthals Showed Significant Physical Differences From North To South
Background


Grid computing

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - New Chicago-Indiana computer network prepared to handle massive data flow - also here, here
Background


Black holes

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Observatory to Research Black Hole Areas - also here, here
Background



Cloning

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - South Korean team produces three cloned dogs
  2. December 18, 2006 - South Korean Scientist Eyes Disease Cures from Cloned Dogs
  3. December 19, 2006 - More cloned puppies born
  4. December 20, 2006 - S. Korean scientists to try monkey cloning
  5. December 21, 2006 - South Korean Scientists Plan to Clone Monkeys
Background


Creativity

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Happiness: Good for Creativity, Bad for Single-Minded Focus
Background


Evolutionary origin of oogamy

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - New Male-specific Gene In Algae Unveils An Origin Of Male And Female - also here, here
Background


Evolution of iguanas

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Too mellow for our predatory world
Background


Neural stem cells and aging

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Stem Cell Activity Deciphered In The Aging Brain - also here, here
Background, Background


Enhancement of memory in animal dreams

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - In Memory-Bank 'Dialogue,' the Brain Is Talking to Itself
  2. December 18, 2006 - Animals Dream in Pictures, Too - also here
  3. December 19, 2006 - Memory Experts Show Sleeping Rats May Have Visual Dreams - also here
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Reading Shakespeare Has Dramatic Effect On Human Brain
  2. December 19, 2006 - Feeling stressed? Try holding your husband's hand
  3. December 20, 2006 - High-quality Marriages Help To Calm Nerves - also here
  4. December 20, 2006 - Need For Immediate Reward Linked To More Active Brain Region
  5. December 20, 2006 - Impulsiveness linked to activity in brain's reward center
  6. December 21, 2006 - How Learning Influences Smell
  7. December 24, 2006 - How Your Brain Helps You Become A Wine Expert
Background


Human-chimp genome differences

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Human-Chimp Gene Gap Widens from Tally of Duplicate Genes
  2. December 20, 2006 - Human-chimp Difference May Be Bigger - also here
Background


Brain Atlases

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Beyond The Book: Software Automates Access To Brain Atlases
Background


How Francisella tularensis evades the immune system

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Study Gives Clues About How Deadly Bacterium Gains Foothold - also here, here, here
Background


Microinversions and phylogenetic trees

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Building Better Phylogenetic Trees - also here
  2. December 30, 2006 - Genomic Variation Easier To Identify With 'Microinversions' Software - also here
Background


Deinococcus radiodurans

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Hardy bug re-opens Mars debate
Background


Parthenogenesis in komodo dragons

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Virgin birth expected for Komodo dragon in UK zoo - also here
  2. December 20, 2006 - Dragon virgin births startle zoo keepers
  3. December 20, 2006 - Virgin Dragon Prepares to Give Birth
  4. December 20, 2006 - 'Virgin births' for giant lizards
  5. December 20, 2006 - Virgin Birth Expected at Christmas -- By Komodo Dragon
  6. December 21, 2006 - Dragon waits for virgin birth
  7. December 21, 2006 - Virgin dragon prepares to give birth - also here
  8. December 23, 2006 - Komodos Reproduce Without Males
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Run Amok Enzyme Causes Same Problems In Both Humans And Fruit Flies - also here, here
Background


Attention and brain activity

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Paying attention sets off symphony of cell synchronization - also here
Background


Crosstalk in gene regulation

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Molecular conversations trigger cell suicide in yeast
Background


Aging

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - DNA damage repair defect unifies theories of aging
  2. December 21, 2006 - Are Scientists Closer to Discovering a Fountain of Youth?
  3. December 22, 2006 - Buildup Of Damaged DNA In Cells Drives Aging
Background


Silent mutations

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - Silent mutations speak up
  2. December 21, 2006 - "Silent" mutations are not always silent
  3. December 22, 2006 - The Sound of a Silent Mutation
Background, Background


Chloroplasts and endosymbiosis

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - Delving Into Chloroplasts' Past
Background, Background


Mechanism of Toxoplasma infection

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - Single Protein Can Determine Severity Of Toxoplasma Infections - also here
  2. December 25, 2006 - Protein key to parasite potency
  3. December 26, 2006 - Dangerous Parasite Gains New Attention In Battles Against AIDS, Bioterrorism
Background


Evolutionary adaptation

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - Squirrels accurately predict bumper harvests
  2. December 24, 2006 - Squirrels Winning At Outwitting Trees' Survival Strategy
Background


Spindle neurons

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Neurons targeted by dementing illness may have evolved for complex social cognition - also here
  2. December 22, 2006 - 'Social Dementia' Decimates Special Neurons
  3. December 26, 2006 - Study Offers Window Into Human Behavior, Brain Disease - also here
Background


Variability in use of neurotransmitters

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Electrical Activity Alters Language Used By Nerve Cells
Background


Immunoglobulin G

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Key Antibody Links Cells' Capture And Disposal Of Germs
Background


Archaea

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Nanoorganisms: Probe Of Acid Mine Drainage Turns Up Unsuspected Virus-sized Archaea
Background


Iron regulatory protein

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Structure Of Iron Regulatory Protein-RNA Complex Solved - also here
  2. December 22, 2006 - 3-D Holiday Gift Could Help Scientists Regulate Iron
Background


Evolution of giraffe necks

References:
  1. December 23, 2006 - Giraffes Avoid Competing With Shorter Browsers - also here
Background



Cancer

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Aromasin after tamoxifen ups breast cancer survival
  2. December 18, 2006 - Genomic Tests Improve Prediction Of Breast Cancer Response To Chemotherapy, Hormonal Therapy
  3. December 18, 2006 - Breast Cancer News Brings a Range of Reactions
  4. December 19, 2006 - Olive oil may hinder cancer process - also here
  5. December 19, 2006 - Asthma drug shows promise against pancreas cancer
  6. December 19, 2006 - Promising Results For Patients With Aggressive, Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Using New Oral Drug
  7. December 19, 2006 - Estrogen Study Provides New Impetus For Development Of Colon Cancer Drugs - also here
  8. December 19, 2006 - Study identifies characteristics of fast-growing skin cancers - also here
  9. December 19, 2006 - Reduced Levels of Fat in the Diet May Decrease the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence According to New Clinical Trial
  10. December 20, 2006 - Experimental cancer drug attacks tumors in novel way
  11. December 20, 2006 - Allergy Drug Slows Pancreatic Tumor Growth In Preclinical Studies - also here
  12. December 21, 2006 - Drug Shown To Be Clinically Active Against Multiple Target Mutations In Two Types Of Leukemia And Myeloproliferative Disorders
  13. December 21, 2006 - Researchers Discover Method in Mice to Restore Tamoxifen Sensitivity in Resistant Breast Cancer
  14. December 21, 2006 - What Cures Your Aches Might Prevent Cancer: Seeking To Prevent Cancer Using Anti-inflammatory Medication
  15. December 21, 2006 - More Common Associations Found Between BRCA1 And BRCA2 Mutations And Cancer
  16. December 22, 2006 - Genetically Modified Cells Attack Tumors
  17. December 22, 2006 - Weight Loss Cuts Prostate Cancer Risk
  18. December 22, 2006 - Lose Weight, Reduce Prostate Cancer Risk?
  19. December 23, 2006 - Olive oil 'can cut cancer risk'
  20. December 24, 2006 - Protection Against Cancer May Begin During Pregnancy, Nursing - also here, here
Background


Nanoparticles for cancer imaging

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Nanoparticles Designed for Dual-Mode Imaging
Background, Background


Malaria

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - New malaria vaccine approach tested in mice
  2. December 18, 2006 - Experimental vaccine blocks transmission of malaria in mice
  3. December 18, 2006 - PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative announces partnership to develop novel malaria vaccine
  4. December 18, 2006 - Malaria vaccine strategies get boost
  5. December 19, 2006 - Malaria Vaccine Prompts Victims' Immune System To Eliminate Parasite From Mosquitoes - also here
  6. December 19, 2006 - Stopping malaria before the bite
Background


AIDS

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Effective HIV Control May Depend On Viral Protein Targeted By Immune Cells - also here, here
  2. December 18, 2006 - Quality Not Quantity Important For Immune Response To HIV - also here, here
Background


Genes, gender, and blood pressures

References:
  1. December 18, 2006 - Researchers Show Surprising Interaction Between Genes, Gender And Hypertension - also here
Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. December 19, 2006 - Higher Occurrence Of Parkinson's Linked To Low LDL Cholesterol - also here, here
Background


Obesity and intestinal bacteria

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Battling bacteria in gut may influence weight gain
  2. December 20, 2006 - Do Gut Bugs Make You Fat?
  3. December 20, 2006 - Weight May Be Linked to Type of Bacteria - also here
  4. December 21, 2006 - Scientists Link Weight to Gut Bacteria - also here
  5. December 21, 2006 - Gut microbes may make you fat
  6. December 21, 2006 - Relative Abundance Of Common Microbes Living In The Gut May Contribute To Obesity - also here
  7. December 21, 2006 - Research Links Obesity to Mix of Bacteria in Digestive Tract
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Education -- the best pill of all for preventing Alzheimer's? - also here
  2. December 20, 2006 - Short Mental Workouts May Slow Decline of Aging Minds, Study Finds
  3. December 20, 2006 - Testosterone Therapy May Prevent Alzheimer's Disease - also here
  4. December 20, 2006 - Androgen therapy may slow progress of Alzheimer's disease - also here
  5. December 20, 2006 - New chemical gives insight into Alzheimer's - also here
  6. December 21, 2006 - New insight gained into devastating brain ailment
  7. December 21, 2006 - New imaging compound might 'see' Alzheimer's earlier - also here
  8. December 21, 2006 - Scan may identify people at risk for Alzheimer's
  9. December 22, 2006 - New Imaging Technique Identifies People At Risk For Alzheimer's Disease
  10. December 22, 2006 - Scientists Develop A New Way To Target Alzheimer's Disease
  11. December 22, 2006 - Pills not enough to treat Alzheimer's
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Vietnam Confirms Bird Flu Outbreak
  2. December 21, 2006 - Warning: A Flu Pandemic Today Could Kill As Many As 80 Million People
  3. December 21, 2006 - New Flu Pandemic Could Kill 81 Million - also here
  4. December 22, 2006 - More Nigerian states hit by bird flu infection
  5. December 22, 2006 - Recurrence Of A Flu Pandemic Similar To Infamous 1918 Flu Could Kill 62 Million - also here
  6. December 22, 2006 - Flu 'could wipe out 62 million'
  7. December 22, 2006 - World Death Toll Of a Flu Pandemic Would Be 62 Million
  8. December 24, 2006 - Egypt reports two new human cases of bird flu
  9. December 25, 2006 - Bird flu kills Egyptian teenager
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Stem cells used to create critical brain barrier in lab
  2. December 22, 2006 - Researchers Use Stem Cells To Regenerate Parts Of Teeth - also here
  3. December 26, 2006 - Don't Surrender Any More Teeth to the Tooth Fairy
  4. January 3, 2007 - Stem cells regenerate teeth in pigs - also here, here
Background


Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. December 20, 2006 - Vitamin D linked to lower MS risk
Background


Atherosclerosis and gene expression

References:
  1. December 21, 2006 - How blood flow dictates gene expression - also here, here
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. December 22, 2006 - Diabetes not linked to Alzheimer's in seniors
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. December 23, 2006 - New drugs 'could halve treatment'
Background


Stem cell therapy for cancer

References:
  1. December 24, 2006 - Researchers Find Stem-cell Therapy Effective In Targeting Metastatic Cancer - also here
  2. December 26, 2006 - Stem Cells And Metastatic Cancer: Fatal Attraction? - also here, here
Background, Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. December 24, 2006 - Tuberculosis Bacillus Hides From Immune System In Host's Fat Cells - also here
Background


Copyright © 2006 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved